It supplies nutrients to the epithelium and contains cells that are part of the body's protective system. 3) Muscularis muscosa - smooth muscle Tunic Mucosa – inner most layer that surrounds the lumen – Epithelium. This tunic is divided into three sub-layers: 1) A layer of epithelium lines the lumen. The type of epithelium is variable, depending on the function of the organ and the organ system. 2) A lamina propria is a loose layer of connective tissue.
It has a different reaction determined by the factors such as first time exposure or second time exposure. The two mechanisms of specific immunity are T-Lymphocytes (cellular) and B-Lymphocytes (humoral). * Antibodies are proteins secreted by plasma cells in response to an antigen that are capable of binding to that antigen. * Cell mediated immune response is immunity conferred by activated T cells, which directly kill infected or cancerous body cells or foreign grafts and release chemicals that regulate the immune system. Contrast to
The internal nose is covered by a vascular mucous membrane thickly lined with small hairs and mucous secretions. This membrane collects and carries debris and bacteria from the inspired air to the nasopharynx for swallowing or expectoriation. The mucous contains immunoglobulins and enzymes that serve as a line of defense from infection. The internal noses is divided by the septum into two anterior cavities the vestibules. The lateral walls of the nose are formed by the turbinates, curved bony structures, covered by mucous membrane, that run horizontally and protrude into the nasal cavity.
Food passes through a long tube inside the body known as the alimentary canal or the gastro intestinal tract (G I tract). The alimentary canal is made up of the oral cavity, the pharynx, the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestines. In addition to the alimentary canal there are several important accessory organs that helps the body digest food but do not have food pass through them. Accessory organs include teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, and the pancreas. The first function of the digestive system is the intake of food; the mouth is responsible for this as this is where food enters the body.
Signal transduction happens when a membrane protein may have a binding site with a specific shape that fits the shape of a chemical messenger, such as hormones & other extracellular substances that trigger changes in cellular activity. Another function is cell to cell recognition which occurs when some proteins serve as identification tags that are specifically recognized by other cells. The Cell Wall is a rigid structure mainly made out of the protein cellulose, a tough chemical that helps plants to maintain their shape
There are two different types of carbohydrate, simple carbohydrates (or sugars) and complex carbohydrates (starches and fibre). Proteins are a vital nutrient which us used by the body for growth and repair, it is very important for infants and children also individuals who are ill or injured. one characteristic of proteins is that they are made up of amino acids. They are complex molecules that can promote good health. Lipids are insoluble within water, they have high energy content and can be metabolized to release calories, but they have many other uses as well.
A connective tissue sheath known as perichondrium overlies the fre surface of most cartilage. Perichondrium is vascular and its vessles suppl nutients to the cells of the cartilage. Bone- connective tissue consists of cells and exracellular matrix. Consisis of cells nd and extracellular matrix. Special feature of bone is the mineralization of tis matrix with calcium phosphate in the from of hydroxyapatite crystals which produce an extremely hard tissue capable o providing support and protection.
This could be in the form of a liquid, like blood. The matrix is usually secreted by connective tissues. There are connective tissues in blood, cartilage, bone, areolar tissues and adipose tissues. The blood transports materials, areolar gives support to the tissue, and as does cartilage, the bone strengthens and protects. Many different tissues are made of different fibres which are secreted by the cell to provide characteristics.
T-cells destroy foreign substances directly or indirectly by releasing various substances. B-cells respond to infection by differentiating into plasma cells, which secrete certain antibodies to eliminate foreign substances. They filter and help activate the immune system. After the fluids are filtered they’re collected by the efferent vessels and emptied to the cardiovascular system. Lymph nodes are important in the immune system.
Storage. Calcium salts of bones that is represented by valuable minerals that is being reserved to preserve common concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions in body fluids. 3. Blood cell production. Red, white blood cells along with other blood elements are produced within the red marrow, which fills the internal cavities within several bones.