Case Story Chapter 3

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Anatomy and Physiology Case Story Chapter 3 B.) The cellular process that is normally affected when the heart stops beating is aerobic respiration. Glucose begins the process in glycolysis and oxygen is required for reactions in the mitochondria. Carbon dioxide is then produced as a byproduct, which is a waste that requires to be excreted. C.) Eukaryotic organelles are enclosed by lipid membranes. There are those that have double-membrane compartments such as chloroplast and mitochondria among others. Single-membrane compartment organelles include endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. However, Ribosomes do not have a membrane. The breakdown of the membranes of these structures, affect the function of his heart cells because lysosomal enzymes which are normally bound safely inside vesicles will digest the plasma membranes and the membranes of the organelles. D.) Predisposition means that Joseph inherited vascular disease. Dna is in the nucleus of the cell. We need DNA to replicate or repair our cells. Also, cytosol is the site of chemical reactions needed to maintain cell structures and allow cell growth. E.) The types of proteins in the cell membrane that were involved in the homeostatic imbalances of his heart cells are ATP, because the lack of it affected the pumps in the membrane, and the calcium from the cytosol ATPases stopped moving calcium from the cytosol into the ER of his cardiac muscle cells. As the intracellular calcium levels rose, they caused proteases to spill into the interior of the cell, attacking the cytoskeleton. Thus, lysosomal enzymes normally bound safely inside vesicles digest the plasma membranes and membranes of the organelles. F.) Reestablishing oxygen flow to his body is so important because oxygen is required by cells to produce ATP, energy currency of the cell and without it homeostasis can shut down. If oxygen was not
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