Eating too much of one component can do as much harm as not eating enough of it. A balanced diet will have the right proportions of fat, protein and carbohydrates as they provide energy. They are all essential for the management of bodily functions. Our body cells convert nutrients into other components and are then used for metabolism and other cellular reactions. Starch, a major carbohydrate is converted to glucose and then reconverted into fat storage.
Carbohydrate is the universal energy cell. Carbohydrate breakdown, glycogen serves as a source of glucose for your cells, your tissues, including your brain and muscles use glucose as a source of energy to support metabolic functioning. When your body requires glucose your liver and muscle breakdown their glycogen stores releasing glucose. Some glucose may be used directly in your liver and muscles while other glucose is released into your blood stream and used throughout body. Lipid break down, your body can breakdown triglycerides as a source of energy.
(Swann, 2008) The pancreas also makes amylase (alpha amylase) to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the body with energy. Hypothesis: Most enzymes are very specific for a certain substrate. The active site on the enzyme molecule forms a keyhole into which the substrate fits like a key. The substrate molecule is then broken up into many smaller pieces. “The higher the reaction temperature, the more kinetic
It also assists in synthesizing enzymes and hormones, maintaining fluid balance, and regulating such vital functions as building antibodies against infection, blood clotting, and scar formation. There are 20 amino acids required for growth by the human body and all but eight can be produced in your body. These eight amino acids are called essential amino acids and they are supplied by supplements and food sources. The other twelve non-essential amino acids are made within the body, but both essential and non-essential amino acids are needed to synthesize proteins. This means that insufficient supply of amino acids in the body can limit the amount of protein it can use to build muscle.
Lipids and carbohydrates allow fuel to be utilised as energy, whilst proteins help maintain cells by growing and repairing them (Rolfes, Pinna & Whitney 2012, p.9). Essential vitamins are those that the body requires but must gain them from food and help release energy from protein, lipids and carbohydrates (Rolfes, Pinna & Whitney 2012, p.10). Whilst minerals are utilised by the body to put structures together such as teeth and bones and water is essential to carrying waste away and for the transportation of minerals (Rolfes, Pinna & Whitney 2012, p.11). However, people require differing amounts of these nutrients throughout their life cycle and are also dependent on gender, age, lactation and pregnancy (National Health and Medical Research Council 2014).
When the body has used up the calories from carbohydrates, which occurs after the first 20 minutes of exercise, it begins to depend on the calories from fat. Healthy skin and hair are maintained by fat. Fat helps the body absorb and move the vitamins A, D, E, and K through the bloodstream. Fats are important to your body because they insulate your nerve cells, balance your hormones, protect you from the cold, keep the skin and arteries supple, and also lubricate your joints. Pure fats are found in 3 broad areas: vegetable oils (corn oil, peanut oil, olive oil), meats (the white layer which outlines the cut of meat), and dairy products.
Insulin is a hormone that significantly contributes to weight gain (Hertzler & Kim, 2003). Insulin is a hormonal substance that is produced and dispersed within the body for regulation of blood sugar. The flow of blood sugar is regulated converting sugar into energy. The energy converted from the sugar by molecules is either needed immediately by the body or converted into fat cells for later use during times when the body needs more energy to function. A large buildup of fat cells within the body can contribute to weight gain (Eades & Eades 1996).
Living creatures produce thousands of enzymes, and the reason for this is because; ‘most enzymes only catalyze one biochemical reaction’ (1), and many different enzymes are need to do this. Enzyme-substrate specificity, this is when ‘a typical enzyme only works on the substrates used in one reaction’ (1). This involves the substrate(s) that bind to the active site. Both active site’s and the substrate’s shape are a match. The reason for this is because; this allows the substrate to bind to the active site, which is known as the ‘lock and key model’.
UDP-Glucose Glycogen The glycogen synthase promotes the transfer of the glucose residue from UDP-glucose to a nonreducing end of a glycogen molecule of at least 8 glucose residues Branching enzyme will add the residues of glucose to the reducing end of glycogen. The biggest part of the glycogen is storage in the liver. A little part is storage also in muscles. Starting at a central glycogenin molecule, glycogen chains of 12 to 14 glucose residues extend in tiers. There are 12 tiers in a mature glycogen particle.
There are two different types of diabetes that the world population deals and suffers with. These types are named after those numbers. Type one, and type two, are how they are classified. In type one diabetes the pancreas is an internal organ in which creates something called insulin. Insulin is a necessity for the body to have in order to change the sugar that you take into energy.