Case Study Josephs Story

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B. Assuming Joseph’s heart has stopped, what cellular processes and membrane functions are going to be affected by the loss of oxygen, blood glucose, and waste removal? As time passed and Joseph lost oxygen, blood glucose and waste removal the cells continued to work which used up the ATP at a faster rate causing carbon dioxide levels to rise and pH to drop, which then caused the mitochondria to lack the oxygen and glucose that is required to make the ATP because of this the cells started dying. Plasma membrane was shut down by the active transport pump. Sodium began leaked into the cells and potassium exited. Due to all this rapid change taking place Joseph’s heart started convulsing in uncontrollable spasms of arrhythmic electrical activity. (Jenkins, G.W. and Tortora, G.J., 2013) C. Which cellular organelles have membranes as part of their cell structures? How would the breakdown of the membranes of these structures affect the function of Joseph’s heart cells? The cellular organelles that have membranes as part of their cell structures are Ribosomes, Smooth and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, Lysosomes, Mitochondria, and Nucleus. The breakdown of these membranes of these structures affect the function of Joseph’s heart cells because the special calcium ATPases stop moving the calcium from the cytosol into the ER of Joseph’s cells in the cardiac muscles. Because intracellular calcium levels began to rise it caused the proteases to leak into interior of the cell which in turn attacks the cytoskeleton. The lysomal enzymes that normally are bound safely in the vesicles starts the digestion of the membranes of the organelles and the plasma membrane. (Jenkins, G.W. and Tortora, G.J., 2013) D. Two important pieces of information-the instructions Joseph’s body needs to repair itself and his predisposition for vascular disease-are both contained within the

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