Depending on the contents these are despatched to one of three destinations: Cytoplasm-The cytoplasm consists of all of the contents outside of the nucleus and enclosed within the cell membrane of a cell. This includes the cytosol and in euckaryotic cells, organelles such as mitochondria and ribosomes. Also located within the cytoplasm is the cytoskeleton, a network of fibers that help the cell maintain its shape and give it support. The cytoplasm is clear in colour and has a gel-like appearance. It is composed mainly of water and also contains enzymes, salts, organelles, and various organic molecules.
Ribosomes are responsible for assembling chains of amino acids to make protein. The way in which the component parts are arranged within the cell, plus the additional organelle in in eukaryotes however, provides the biggest difference between the two cell types. All organelles of the eukaryotes are membrane bound. Compartmentalisation within the eukaryotic cell allows for each organelle to create its own isolated environment so that the reactions and processes of each organelle is kept separated within the cell. The genetic material of both cells, in the form of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is held differently within the two cells.
Mitochondria Mitochondria Nucleus Nucleus Lysosome Lysosome Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus Cell membrane Cell membrane Endoplasmic reticulum (Smooth and rough) Endoplasmic reticulum (Smooth and rough) Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Cell Membrane A cell membrane of the cell. It gives the cell its shape, it is the outer covering of the cell made up from phospho-lipid-protein bi-layer, which allows the materials to enter and to exit. The cell membrane is not one solid piece. It is made of different pieces. Compounds called proteins and phospholipids make up most of the cell membrane.
The plasma membrane acts as a selective barrier between the cell and its environment, and is a structure that you will study in detail throughout the year. The nucleus consists of a limiting double bilayer nuclear envelope containing nuclear pores enclosing the nucleoplasm. Small, irregular particles scattered throughout the nucleus or accumulated adjacent to the nuclear envelope are clumps of condensed chromatin known as heterochromatin. They consist of protein and DNA and stain with basic dyes. When the chromatin is dispersed and not readily stainable, it is known as euchromatin.
4 – Dismantles debris B. 6 – Protein synthesis C. 2 – Houses DNA D. 1 – Lipid synthesis E. 7 – Processes secretions F. 3 – Energy extraction G. 5 – Detoxification 2) Explain the functions of the following proteins: A. Tubulin and Actin – Tubulin forms microtubules, while actin forms microfilaments. B. Caspases – Caspases are responsible for apoptosis. C. Cyclins and kinases – The interaction of cyclins and kinases trigger mitosis from the inside. D. Checkpoint proteins – Checkpoint proteins are responsible for regulating the cell cycle.
Nuclear envelope What genetic material is found in this part of the cell more than anywhere else in the cell? RNA C. Nucleolus D. Cytoplasm E. Mitochondria F. Lysosomes G. Endoplasmic Reticulum H. Golgi apparatus I. This part of the cell is reponsible for breaking down organic molecules. J. Ribosomes K. centrioles L. Chromatin What function do peroxisomes serve? Peroxisomes contain a variety of enzymes, which primarily function together to rid the cell of toxic substances, and in particular, hydrogen peroxide (a common byproduct of cellular metabolism).
The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. It consists of the phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. Mitochondrion- The main job of mitochondria is to perform cellular respiration. This means it takes in nutrients from the cell, breaks it down, and turns it into energy. This energy is then in turn used by the cell to carry out various functions.
The protein molecule is able to float in the membrane – part of it is embedded in the membrane, part of it sticks into the cytoplasm, and part of it sticks out into the aqueous environment of the cell. What do you suspect about its structure, including its amino acid sequence, to make it behave as it does? * Examine the diagram of the cell membrane below. Is the diagram a “good” illustration of the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane? What aspects of cell membrane structure are accurately illustrated by it?
There are many models of enzymes, such as the lock and key model, which explores the structure of the enzyme and its ability to bind with a substrate molecule which is specific and complementary. There is also the induced fit model which explored the ability of enzyme molecules to change shape slightly enabling it to fit and bind to substrate molecules which must be complementary and specific. The importance of enzyme and substrate molecules to fit together, is the formation of the products which may enable many vital reactions to occur within cells and organisms. Enzymes are in important in digestion and the replication of DNA. Within digestion lactose within milk is broken down by the enzyme lactase, without lactose having a complimentary specific shape to it lactase enzyme, some people are lactose intolerant.
| Nucleolus | The nucleolus is responsible for the cell organelles (e.g. lysosomes, ribosomes, etc.). | Cell membrane | The cell membrane keeps the cell together by containing the organelles within it. Cell membranes are selectively-permeable, allowing materials to move both into and outside of the cell. | Vesicle | Storage in and out of the cell.