The relative reactivity of the hydrogens H1, H2, H3 , and H4 were 0.37, 1.4, 2.9, and 1.0 respectively. The radical chlorination of 1-chlorobutane follows the radical reaction mechanism. Abstraction of hydrogen from 1-chlorobutane by the chlorine radical occurs in the first part of the propagation step. Depending on which hydrogen is abstracted by the chlorine radical, determines which product is formed. Hydrogens on the alkene have different reactivity which determines which isomer is favored.
Object A has a net charge of excess electrons. Object B is grounded. Which object is at a higher potential? A) A B) B C) Both are at the same potential. D) cannot be determined without more information Answer: B Diff: 2 Type: BI Var: 1 Page Ref: Sec.
The more energy levels that are present, the farther from the nucleus they are. Activity 11B Question: How are the electron configurations of elements beyond argon determined? The same way that ones before argon are determined. Find the noble gas before the element you are doing. This becomes your base for the electron configuration so you can start counting from that element number.
The arrangement of particles in an atom Protons and neutrons make up the main, dense, central nucleus in the centre of the atom. This is surrounded by electrons “orbiting” the main nucleus. The electron are in shells depending on their energy levels, as the most energetic are on the outer shells, because they need more energy to travel around a bigger “orbit” of the nucleus. These shells are full when a certain amount of atoms are in the shell; 2 in the first shell, 8 in the next shell, 8 in the third shell and so on. When the shells are full, the atom is unreactive.
As Model Science (2011) explains, the experiment will show that as the salt with the metal is “burned, the electrons will be excited (i.e., move to another energy level) and as these electrons fall back from one energy level to another, they will emit photons of light. These photons will have different colors depending on the element and its discrete energy levels”. In other words, “different wavelengths of light (colors) will be emitted when the electrons of different elements go down the step(s) between their energy level(s). In addition, each element will have its own set of energy levels and therefore each will have its own color or set of colors (Model Science, 2011)”. As an example, Model Science (2011) provided “sodium burns orange, potassium -purple/blue, barium - green, and lithium – red”.
So, when hydrogen atoms are removed from glucose, so are electrons. 5. Glucose is a high-energy molecule, carbon dioxide and water are low energy molecules. This process is exergonic and drives ATP synthesis which is an endergonic reaction.
When approaching the electrophile, the nucleophile comes from the opposite side of the leaving group (backside attack). As the nucleophile attaches, the leaving group simultaneously departs (concerted rxn), leaving a new molecule with an inverted stereocenter configuration from the original. Good leaving groups are those that are most easily replaced by the nucleophile, usually being weak bases and small in size (halogens). The weaker the base, the less inclined the leaving group is to ‘stick’ with the substrate and more likely it is to leave when a stronger nucleophile is introduced. Since SN2 reactions are concerted, the rate of the reaction can be directly related to the concentrations of the substrate and nucleophile (Rate = k[sub][nuc]) in solution.
* X belongs to Group 2 of the periodic table because it has a low first and second ionization energy, however, a higher second and third. * b. What charge would you expect element X to have when it forms an ion? * Element X would form a positive charge because the first two would be kicked out and that would leave the two valence electrons forming an ion with +2 charge. * c. If you were to place elements X and Y into the periodic table, would element Y be in the same period as element X?