Color Change Essay

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1. What three particles make up every atom? • Electron- negatively charged Proton-positively charged Neutron_electrically neutral 2. What are the major differences among the three particles that make up every atom? • The electron, the proton and the neutron are the "building blocks" of the atom. Protons have a positive electrical charge (p+), and neutrons which have about the same mass, are electrically neutral, or have no electrical charged (n0). Electrons, which are much less massive than protons - only about 1/1836th as heavy - have a negative electrical charge (e-). All atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons, though most hydrogen (1H1) has just the proton in its nucleus and a lone electron in orbit. 3. What is the relationship between a photon and a quantum leap? • When a quantum leap occurs, a single photon is emitted. 4. Using the periodic table, determine the result of the following calculation: the number of electrons in the outer shell of a hydrogen atom minus the number of electrons in the outer shell of a helium atom plus the number of electrons in the outer shell of a hydrogen atom. • 8 electrons, minus 2 for the first orbital, second orbital will have 6 making them valence 5. When is an electron a valence electron? Why are valence electrons especially important in chemical reactions? • When it is on the very outside level away from the nucleus A valence electron is one that occupies the highest energy level for any electron in a particular neutral atom. • Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom — in the energy level that is farthest away from the nucleus. When chemists study chemical reactions, they study the transfer or sharing of electrons. 6. Are the following substances acid, base, or neutral: sodium bicarbonate (pH = 8.3): Neutral Blood (pH = 7.4):Neutral milk (pH =6.7): Neutral

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