Astronomy 10 Chapter 11 1. Both used to be normal stars but the white dwarf ran out of hydrogen, they are both subjected to gravitational theories. A Neutron star is a fluid of neutrons, as hot at its surface as the inside of the sun and has a greater magnetic field. 3. Because its density is so high, neutrons spin in the same way that electrons do so must obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle.
Neutrons, Protons and electrons are all sub-atomic particles. In relative mass, we always think of protons and neutrons in having a mass of 1 and electrons a mass of 1/1840, which shows that electrons are considerably smaller than protons and neutrons, and only make up a small part of the atom. The amount of protons and neutrons added together is the relative atomic mass, and this is the main structure of the atom. 2. The arrangement of particles in an atom Protons and neutrons make up the main, dense, central nucleus in the centre of the atom.
INTRODUCTION TO NUCLEAR REACTION: The main features of nuclear reactions include radioactive decay, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Radioactive decay: Energy is released in a radioactive decay in the form of the kinetic energy of the particle emitted (α and β), the kinetic energy of the daughter nucleus and the energy of the gamma-ray photon that may accompany the decay. The energy involved may be calculated by finding the mass defect of the reaction. The energy released is the energy equivalent of the mass defect of the reaction. Nuclear fission: Nuclear fission is the process in which a large nucleus breaks into two smaller nuclei that are almost equal in mass.
Although some subatomic particles have a greater mass than some atoms. Subatomic particles are made of quarks such as a proton which is made of two up quarks and one down quark. The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons. The electrons of an atom are bound to the nucleus by the electromagnetic force.
Seventy five percent of the table is made up of metals, and a couple of the columns on the right of the table have gases. There are only two elements that are liquids- mercury and bromine. Column 1 contains the alkali metals, which suddenly combust when exposed to air or water. Columns 3-12 are the transition metals, which contain heavier atoms, which are more flexible in how they organize their electrons. Column 17 is made up of the more reactive gases- the halogens.
Describe the differences between protons and electrons The difference between protons and electrons is that protons are positively charged and that elections are negatively charged. Another difference is that protons are in the nucleus and electrons circle the nucleus in shells outside the nucleus. What is the difference between the mass number and the relative atomic mass of an element? The difference between the mass number and the atomic mass is that the mass number is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and the relative atomic mass is the mass of an atom. Distinguish between an element and a compound with 2 examples for each An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into any simpler substances.
A slower process than MIG, it produces a more precise weld and can be used at lower amperages for thinner metal and can be used on exotic metals. TIG does require quite a bit more time than MIG to learn. It is similar in technique to gas welding. TIG can be used with pure helium or argon as an inert shielding gas to protect the weld pool from the atmosphere. (Nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other elements cause weld defects if introduced to the weld pool.)
Electromagnetism Everything is made out of atoms. Atoms consist of a nucleus (containing neutrons and protons) and a cloud of electrons surrounding the nucleus. Protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged. If an object has more protons than neutrons, then it is negatively charged. If an object has more electrons than protons, then it is positively charged.
Nuclear Power is produced by controlled (non-explosive) reactors. They convert the thermal energy released from nuclear fission. When uranium and plutonium are enriched, it undergoes nuclear fission. It releases kinetic energy and gamma radiation. This whole process is called a nuclear chain reaction.
The nucleus is surrounded by circling electrons on the outer shell. In most cases, atoms are neutrally charged (there is the same number of electrons as protons). If an atom has more electrons than protons, it is negatively charged. If an atom has more protons than electrons, it is positively charged. Static electricity is produced from a process known as triboelectrification.