Liberalism was drawn from the age of enlightenment in which many religious restrictions were broken in order for meritocracy to strive which allowed individuals to strive on their own basis. The main party that stands for liberalism within Britain is the Liberal Democrat party which is lead by Nick Clegg however parties such as Labour and the Conservatives have strong relations with Liberalism which is evident through their leadership style and manifesto proposals. One of the most leading styles of modern liberalism that is displayed in British politics at current times is the development of the welfare state which provides people with education and healthcare but also provides benefits for those who are unable to work for various reasons. The welfare state was originally introduced in 1911 as a result of a range of reforms due to investigation in to the living conditions of ordinary British citizens. The national insurance act was enacted by David Lloyd George and the liberal party and it meant that contributions were made to assist those who were unemployed or unable to work.
In fact Conservatism has often been described as chameleon like, in that it changes its appearance according to the dominant political environment at a given time. In the 19th century, when liberalism was its main opponent, conservatism adopted an organic vision of society, seeing it as a living entity and expecting people to demonstrate a sense of responsibility towards each other. When socialism came to the forefront, conservative changed course and began to emphasise the virtues of free markets and individualism to combat collectivist ideas. Such an adaptable movement cannot be described as ideological in nature. It is common to view conservatives as two strands of government the ‘wets’ and the ‘dry’s’, wets are seen to be more collectivist and believe in a greater role of government, such as planning or intervention, whereas dry’s are more neo-liberal,
The main focus of liberalism is liberty and freedom, there are two types of liberalism classical and new liberalism, this therefore determines the type of liberty they want to achieve. Firstly liberals have a fear that some potential consequences of government such as no legitimate authority, the tendency for power to become concentrated in too few hands and the democratic systems may simply become the tyranny of the majority. Through this fear they offer a solution through the liberal constitution, it defines the right of citizens which could be a safeguard against encroachments by governments, distributes power among different institutions of government to prevent the concentration of power. These are only a few of many. By combining the doctrines of government by consent and constitutionalism, modern liberals have found a way of reconciling effective government with the right and freedoms of both the individual and intermediate groups.
28/12/11 Social Reforms Essay To what extent were the Liberal Social Reforms of 1906-1914 in response to the Booth and Rowntree reports? Although there were social changes before hand, between 1906 and 1914, the Liberals launched into one of the biggest social reforms in British political history. Before this, the government’s attitudes to the welfare of its people in the nineteenth century is a phrase called ‘Laissez-fare’ meaning, quite simply, the government didn’t believe it was their duty to interfere with the lives of the people and that the individuals should be responsible for the state of their own lives. However, the findings of The Booth and Rowntree reports were one of the few significant moving factors of the government abandoning of Laissez-fare with shockingly realistic statistics. There were also other key factors such as the ideas of new liberalism, national efficiency, political pragmatism and national security to be taken into consideration of why the government changed its policy.
However, the New Right incorporates neo-liberalism, which is a moderation of liberalism that supports free market economics and the minimal role of the state. But it also incorporates neo-conservatism which contrasts from neo-liberalism as it has a strong stance on law and order and the authoritarian state, focusing on nationalism. Firstly the New Right can be said to internally coherent in a political sense and in terms of the compatibility of its goals. All members of the New Right are capable of accepting a strong but minimal state as neo-conservatives believe in an authoritarian strong state in which they prevent excessive freedom due to their view on human nature, but not excessive state so there is not a dependency culture created. The neo liberals also believe that there should be minimal state but in an economic sense, and this is in order to allow capitalism to flourish without excessive restraints and laws imposed on business, and this is to encourage competition in the market to improve efficiency and profit.
In the past, the ALP has been labelled Social Democrat or Democratic Socialist because being influenced by the labour movement. Supporters of the ALP can be split into two groups- the socialist left and labour right. Now, the ALP is regarded as a liberal democratic party. 4. The ALP supports a market capitalist economy under a liberal democratic government.
He believed in “Life, Liberty, and Property.” One of the main framers that John Locke influenced majorly was a classical liberal and that was Thomas Jefferson. (Stephenson 119) Jefferson once states, “Our liberty depends upon the freedom of the press.” He played a big role in the creation of the Bill of Rights, which are all about equality and being liberal. He was the one who contacted Madison and told him to ratify the constitution because it lacked a bill of rights and the failure to provide for rotation in office. James Madison was the father of the Constitution and drafted the Bill Of Rights, which is all about equality. To make the people feel equally powered with the government and Madison was a liberal.
Constitutionalism: government that is structured by law, and in which the power of government is limited. xxiv. Limited government: government that is restricted in what it can do so that the rights of the people are protected. IV. Origins of American Democracy G. Democracy's Origins in Popular Protest: The Influence of the Reformation and the Enlightenment H. The Modern Political Philosophy of Hobbes and Locke I.
However, other reasons also played a part. Concern over national security also played a part in persuading the Government that reforms were needed. It could be argued that British politics almost revolved around national efficiency and responding to the industrial and economical threat of Germany and America consequently leading to the reforms. The new Labour party promised social reforms and the Liberals were worried about losing votes. The Liberals knew they had to find a way of keeping the working class votes.
The difference between ideology and science, "false and truth’ is highlighted and therefore crucial to his usage of the term. Karl treated ideology as a fleeting actuality. Ideology is also related to the class scheme, a scheme that Marx believed to reflect the interests of the ruling class in society. Liberalism is considered the standard example of ideology because it depicts the rights exclusive to the privileged as universal rights. Ideology is a demonstration of power.