He argued that capital society and social order are all link to a capital system to human beings. Durkheim on the other hand, argued that sociology should be look at social facts as objects. Roles and institutions act like bodily organs, each depending on other. The world should be divided into subjective and objective, regarding society as a reality in itself. Durkheim sees anomie as responsible for the world’s disorder of economics- the lack of morality and regulation resulted in overpowering the weak; thus, he feels that only norms can prevent the abuse of power and calls for regulation and equal opportunity from birth- the greater the equal opportunity the less need for restraint.
They take clear stands on issues. What is Huxley’s specific criticism of escapism? How does escapism contribute to a dystopia. Write something like: “ Huxley uses foil, symbolism, and irony to illustrate how escapism breeds a passivity in society that enables the rise of a dystopian regime.” Remember that your thesis needs two parts: a topic and a specific opinion. In this thesis, the topic is escapism; the specific opinion is: escapism breeds passivity which leads to dystopia) In Brave New World, John the Savage and Lenina Crowne serve as foils to display the effects of escapism in human beings .
Has Liberalism betrayed its classical Liberal Principles? Liberalism has manifested itself in two distinct forms, Classical Liberalism and Modern Liberalism. Classical liberals are a tradition within Liberalism that seek to maximise the realms of unconstrained individual actions; typically by establishing a minimal state and a reliance on market economics. In contrast, Modern liberals provide a qualified endorsement for social and economic intervention as a means of promoting personal development. Classical liberals have been defined by the desire to minimise government interference in the lives of citizens, they feel betrayed by modern liberals as they are associated with welfare provision, intervention and economic management.
Outline the postmodernist view of the role of Education Postmodernists take a diversity approach when considering the role of education. They argue that the Marxist view is outdated and that society has entered a new postmodern phase. Marxists believe that capitalism cannot function without a workforce that is willing to accept exploitation. They also see education as reproducing and legitimating class inequality. Postmodernists reject this view of Marxism, that we still live in a two-class society and the claim that education reproduces class inequality.
Man needed the power of society to restrain and control him. Society was seen as a compelling force and early structuralists such as Hobbes and Durkheim emphasised the power of society and the relative lack of power of mankind to control it. The emphasis of the earliest writers in the tradition, Comte, Spencer and Durkheim, shows a concern with the need for order and harmonious integration in social life. It is their work which has formed the basis of the work by Parsons and others in the USA. This writing forms the basis of the functionalist perspective and has been very influential in the thought and research of Sociology in that country though functionalism has been less influential in modern European thought.
Through this we have learned that as working class, we expect and accept that we will be exploited by the ruling class in terms of our surplus value. This is known as a crisis of Hegemony. They go on to say that we have internalised the DVS to such an extent that any other value system seems absurd, resulting in a state of false class consciousness. Marx believed that we will see a social revolution which will overthrow capitalism and replace it with true communism. Marxism sees religion as a feature which is only relevant in a society based on class division I.E the ruling classes and the working classes.
The functionalist believe that the understanding of deviance is the function for society rather than individuals themselves. Even though they believe that consensus is a function required for society. Functionalists therefore, argue that it is important for society to maintain society and the social control. However, the strain theory which is Merton's theory is based upon the theory of functionalist as they encourage anomie of deviance. Merton 1930,highlights the strains between the cultural goals of society and legitimate and regular ways to achieving the goals of success.
Nevertheless, one major criticism of these structuralist approaches, i.e. Marxism and Feminism, is that they are grounded theories; these would infer that the theories may be thought of first and then evidence would be selected to back them up. Thus, two famous sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss argued that this is the wrong order to approach research, as
Assess the view that Marxism and Functionalism are Utopian ideologies. The view that Marxism and Functionalism are utopian is highly debateable. Karl Mannheim defined an ideology as “a set of beliefs used to justify and perpetuate an existing social order and reproduce class inequality” and a utopia as “a utopian set of beliefs about how the world could be organised in the future. Utopian ideologies tend to be formed by oppressed groups who want radical change”. Marxism is the belief that the bourgeoisie’s position is implemented to minimalise class conflict and legitimise inequality.
For Marxists, society is one of capitalist nature. Marx believed that there is conflict between the rich and the poor and that the capitalist society is designed to keep the poor in their place. This social divide is between the ruling class (The Bourgeoisie) and the subject class (The Proletariat). This is known as the relations of production, which is used to exploit the working class. When it comes to religion, Marx believed that it was beneficial to the ruling class and that religion is used as a tool of oppression against the masses.