Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company A Self-Directed Experiment 16 April 2012 INTRODUCTION The Athenium Baking Soda Company has begun producing baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, or sodium hydrogen carbonate). NH4HCO3 + NaCl ==> NaHCO3 + NH4Cl Due to the high concentration of the brine solution that is used to generate the product, contaminants are often present in the finished product as chloride compounds. The contaminants may be detected when the finished baking soda product is dried and filtered. PURPOSE: In this experiment, we will be employing quality control by analyzing the composition and purity of the contaminated baking soda samples. To perform this experiment, we will utilize emission spectra, titrations, and thermal gravimetric analysis, using knowledge from Experiments 10, 4, Titrations of Na2CO3 and NAHCO3 by HCl (hydrochloric acid) will be performed to determine the concentration of HCl, as well as the number of moles of HCl present within the sample of baking soda.
This standardized solution of sodium hydroxide can then be used to determine the concentration of acid in the sample of gastric juice. Acid-base titration is when a titration is carried out with a known volume of a strong acid which in this case is HCl, of unknown concentration, with a standard solution of a strong base NaOH. The reaction taking place is: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(aq) A titration can be used to find the concentration of an acid in gastric juices because the acidity in the gastric juices is mainly caused by hydrochloric
The chemical equation to be used is : 2NaHCO3(s) Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(g) In the second part, 1.0 M HCl will be titrated into a solution with a known amount of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), the pH will be measured as it becomes more acidic and the equivalence point (the point at which HCL and Na2CO3 reach equilibrium) determined. We will calculate the moles of Na2CO3 by dividing the grams used by the molar mass of sodium carbonate. Then, the moles of HCl required to neutralize Na2CO3 will be determined by using the mole to mole ratio in the chemical equation. Finally, the molarity
For reaction (II) Pb (NO3)2 + 2KI -> PbI2+2KNO3 Lead nitrate is soluble, so it gets written as ions. The same goes for potassium iodide and potassium nitrate. Complete Ionic equation: 2 K+1 + I-1 + Pb2+ + NO32- -> PbI2 + 2K+1 + NO3-1 Net Ionic Equation: Pb+2 + 2 I-1 -> PbI2 Warm-Up Exercise 2 In this lab you will mix 25 mL of 0.05M lead nitrate with 1.4 mL of 0.025M sodium carbonate. After the reaction occurs, you will filter the solution to remove the precipitate. You will then test the remaining solution for excess lead ion and for excess carbonate ion… Imagine that you mix the two volumes and then freeze frame the reaction so the it does not proceed: 1.
AP Chemistry P2 Experiment 2: Formula of a Hydrate 9/24/2013 Purpose: Calculate the percent composition of water in a hydrate and determine the empirical formula of the hydrate. Procedure: 1) Set up ring stand with ring clamp, clay triangle, crucible with lid, and burner. Adjust the height of the ring stand. 2) Dehydrating Procedures: 3. Measure approximately 1 g of Copper(II) Sulfate Hydrate into the crucible and crucible and lid.
Title : Reaction of Carboxylic Acids Objective : To Determine The Reaction of Carboxylic Acids Procedure : As referred to Lab manual. Results: A. Salt Formation |Compound |Solvent |Solubility | |Benzoic Acid |Cold Water |Partially soluble | |Benzoic Acid |10 % NaOH |Soluble | B. Salt Hydrolysis Sodium acetate solution changed the color of litmus from red to blue. C. Reaction With Sodium Carbonate Observation : A lot of gas bubbles was released.
The solution that is added by buret also called titrant. The sodium hydroxide is used as a standard solution with known concentration. The equivalence point (the equal amount of base and acid) has to reach in a titration process. An acid/base indicator (e.g. Phenolphthalein) is used to show the equivalence point has reached by changing colours.
Stoichiometry of Reactions in Solution I. Introduction: Stoichiometry of reactions in solution applied stoichiometry and the idea of a limiting reactant to a reaction in solution. This experiment involved performing aqueous acid and base titrations to determine the mole ratios of four different acid base reactions. Titration is one compound added to a known amount of another compound quantitatively and reacted together to completion (the solution turn pink at the end point). The end point is also called the neutralization point, which means that all the acid has reacted completely with the base and the solution has been neutralized.
Acid and Base Titration Aim: To determine the concentration of a dilute solution of sodium hydroxide which is approximately 0.1 mol dm-3 Introduction: Titration is an example of redox reaction and is a process of chemical analysis in which the quantity of some constituent of a sample is determined by adding to the measured sample an exactly known quantity of another substance with which the desired constituent reacts in a definite, known proportion. The process involves the gradual adding of standard solution of titrating reagent from a burette. The addition is stopped when the equivalence point is reached. From this point an exact equivalent of titrant will be added to the earlier solution. The completion of the reaction is marked by some signal; this signifies the end point.
TITRATION OF AN ACID (A PREPARED STANDARD SOLUTION OF KH₅O₄C₈) AGAINST A BASE (NAOH) USING PHENOLPHTHALEIN AS AN INDICATOR BY GRACE The aim of this experiment is to prepare a standard solution of potassium hydrogen phthalate (KH₅O₄C₈) and then use it to calculate the concentration of sodium hydroxide by titrating the acid (KH₅O₄C₈) against the base (NaOH). Before the whole experiment could take place, some apparatus were needed which included the following; A weighing balance, burette, pipette, a conical flask, clamp and then the setup was as below; THEORY To calculate for the moles of KH₅O₄C₈, I used n (mol) =m (g)/M (gmol⁻ⁱ (JOHN GREEN AND SADRU DAMJI, PG 6 OF CHAPTER 1.THIRD EDITION). Whereby m=mass of the acid, M=molar mass of the acid and n=number of moles. Molar mass of KH₅O₄C₈ is 204.1g/mol and its mass is 1g Therefore=1g/204.1gmol⁻ⁱ n=0.0048996mol Further more, to calculate for the concentration of the acid, I used C(moldm⁻3.) =n (mol)/v (dm3) Whereby c=concentration, n=number of moles and v=volume used.