Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company

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Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company A Self-Directed Experiment 16 April 2012 INTRODUCTION The Athenium Baking Soda Company has begun producing baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, or sodium hydrogen carbonate). NH4HCO3 + NaCl ==> NaHCO3 + NH4Cl Due to the high concentration of the brine solution that is used to generate the product, contaminants are often present in the finished product as chloride compounds. The contaminants may be detected when the finished baking soda product is dried and filtered. PURPOSE: In this experiment, we will be employing quality control by analyzing the composition and purity of the contaminated baking soda samples. To perform this experiment, we will utilize emission spectra, titrations, and thermal gravimetric analysis, using knowledge from Experiments 10, 4, Titrations of Na2CO3 and NAHCO3 by HCl (hydrochloric acid) will be performed to determine the concentration of HCl, as well as the number of moles of HCl present within the sample of baking soda. As a result, we will be able to determine the molar concentration of HCl by determining its equivalence point (the point on the graph where the exact amount of rectant needed to perform a reaction has been added) from graphical analysis. Na2CO3(aq.) + HCl(aq.) ==> NaHCO3(aq.) + NaCl(aq.) We will standardize the HCl solution to use it in the titration. The standardization will come as a result of the 1:1 molar ratio above. Thus, the molarity of the HCl solution can be calculated by dividing the number of moles of HCl by the volume of HCl (in liters) used to neutralize the Na2CO3 . Now that it is a neutralized solution, we are able to use it for the titration of NaHCO3. NaHCO3(aq.) + HCl(aq.) ==> NaCl(aq.) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) We will determine the equivalence point by recording the titration of NaHCO3 with the standardized HCl. The

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