Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Chloride + Water NaOH(aq) + HClaq → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) Variables Independent The independent variable of the experiment was the amount of sodium hydroxide that we added to the acid. To keep the variable controlled we would measure 1 ml of the sodium hydroxide and pouring that to the hydrochloric acid. Dependent The dependent variables of the experiment were the temperature and the pH number of the mixture. To control the pH and temperature use the electronic probe and data logger. Controlled The controlled variables of the experiment were: A.
In the fourth part, we determined the exact concentration of EDTA by standardization. Lastly, we determined the hardness of the water. The diluted EDTA titrant was used for the titration of the sample. 10.00 ml of the sample was used instead of the 10.00 ml standard CaCO3. Water hardness is an expression for the sum of the calcium and magnesium cation concentration in a water sample.
The following data were obtained when a sample of barium chloride hydrate was analyzed as described in the Procedure section. Calculate (a) the mass of the hydrate, (b) the mass of water lost during heating, and (c) the percent water in the hydrate. Mass of empty test tube 18.42 g Mass of test tube and hydrate (before heating) 20.75 g Mass of test tube and anhydrous salt (after heating) 20.41 g. Mass of the Hydrate is 2.33g. Loss (H2O) is 0.34g. Percent H2O in Hydrate is equal 0.34/2.33=14.6% 3.
To work out the formula of the magnesium oxide, we need relative atomic masses and number of moles of magnesium and oxygen. By finding the moles involved in the reaction, we can work out the ratio of the magnesium to oxygen in the compound (magnesium oxide) should be 1:1. A balance formula of the experiment: 2Mg(s) + O2(g) → 2MgO(s) Method The same balance was used for the weighing in the experiment 1. All apparatus were set up. 2.
________________________________________ Chart 1.2: the difference between the readings in each of the trails. Chart 1.3: the difference between the sum and the average. CONCLUSION AND EVALUATION CONCLUSION: Equivalence point is the point at which the moles of H+ is equal to the moles of OH+,an indicator is used to show the equivalence point during a titration. in a titration the method is about totaling one reactant from the burette (regularly the acid),to a known volume of the other reactant in a conical flask(regularly the base) . In order to find the concentration of NaOH we need to tag along the following steps: a- note down the balanced chemical equation for the reaction C8H5O5K+NaOH→C8H4O4KNa+H2O b- pull out applicable information from the experiment: C8H5O5K V=0.025 dm3 C=0.2M NaOH V=0.021 dm3 C= ??
Chemguide – questions ELIMINATION MECHANISMS 1. In the presence of sodium hydroxide solution, 2-bromopropane can undergo either a substitution reaction or an elimination reaction. A mechanism for the substitution reaction is A mechanism for the elimination reaction is a) In the substitution reaction, the hydroxide ion is acting as a nucleophile, attracted by the slightly positive carbon atom attached to the bromine. How is the hydroxide ion acting in the elimination reaction? b) Use the mechanism to help you explain exactly what is happening during the elimination reaction.
One of the applications of Hess' Law is to determine the enthalpy change for a reaction by combining other reactions to get the desired reaction, then combining the enthalpy changes for the reactions to get delta H for the reaction under consideration. An exothermic enthalpy change is always Assessed Practical: Planning Introduction: The aim of this experiment is to find the enthalpy change for the decomposition of sodium hydrogen carbonate. 2NaHCO = Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O Using the enthalpy change of the following reactions. Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate: NaHCO3 + HCl = NaCl + CO2 + H2O Sodium carbonate: Na2CO3 + 2HCl = 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O Apparatus Sodium hydrogen carbonate Sodium carbonate Polystyrene Cup x 2 Measuring cylinder 50cm³ x 2 Weighing scale Weighing boats Thermometer degrees Spatula HCl acid 2M Prediction Background Information Hess' Law states that the enthalpy change for a reaction is the same whether the reaction occurs directly or in steps. This is a direct consequence of the fact that enthalpy, is a state function.
ROOH + 2KI I2 + 2KOH + RO- The amount of Iodine produced can be further determined by titration with sodium thiosulphate (NaS2O3) using soluble starch to indicate the endpoint (color change from blue to colorless) I2+NaS2O3 S2O3 + 2NaI After the titrations, we can calculate the P.V. value using the formula: P.V. = [ SxM / Sample weight of oil (g) ] x1000 Where S = volume (inml) of sodium thiosulphate solution used in titration and M = molar concentration of the sodium thiosulphate solution. For experiment two, the thiobarbituric acid test (TBA test) was performed. This test is based on the assumption that malonaldehyde, one of the byproducts formed during lipid oxidation, reacts with thiobarbituric acid and form a red chromogn.
Purpose of the Experiment: To produce diphenylmethanol from the reduction of benzophenone by using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. To check purity of a product by using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and by performing a melting point. Introduction: The key step in the reduction of a carbonyl compound by either lithium aluminium hydride or sodium borohydride is the transfer of a hydride ion from the metal to the carbonyl carbon. In this transfer the hydride ion acts as nucleophile. The mechanism for the reduction of a ketone by sodium borohydride: (1) Method (Based on Chemistry Laboratory Manual): 1.