Dehydration of 2-Methylcyclohexanol Abstract The goal of this lab was to dehydrate 2-Methylcyclohexanol to obtain a cyclohexene using a concentrated acid. The percent yield for the final product was 69.6% and both saturation tests were positive for the presence of a double bond. The IR spectroscopy produced peaks between 1400 and 1600 cm-1, which suggests the presence of C=C double bonds. Introduction In this lab an alcohol is dehydrated using concentrated phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The acid protonates the hydroxyl group, which creates water, a good leaving group.
(35.7+36+36.6)/3=36.1 ml is the average volume of the Na2S2O3. (0.0361)(0.1) = 0.00361 0.00361/(2 ×2.5)=7.22 ×〖10〗^(-4) M NaClO 0.00481/(.005) = 0.96 M NaClO 0.358/5.4= 35.8 % |.358-0.060|= .298 |(0.358-0.06)/0.06|=4.9% percent error Conclusion In the experiment a redox titration was performed in order to determine the percent of sodium hypochlorite in commercial bleach. This done by reacting the bleach and the sodium thiosulfate in the presence of iodide ions and starch. Discussions of Theory Experimental Sources of Error Pre-Lab Questions Titration is the process, operation, or method of determining the concentration of a substance in solution by adding to it a standard reagent of known concentration in carefully measured amounts until a reaction of definite and known proportion is completed, as shown by a color change or by electrical measurement, and then calculating the unknown
One method for preparing baking soda is through reacting crystalline ammonium hydrogen carbonate with brine according to the following equation: NH4HCO3(s) + NaCl (aq) --> NaHCO3(aq) +NH4Cl(aq) Eq. 1 Brine contains sodium chloride, the compound needed to make baking soda, as well as potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and calcium chloride. Once the reaction has been completed, the solid baking soda is filtered off, but some contaminants may be present in the solid. The first step in determining the purity of the sample is to perform thermal gravimetric analysis (Experiment 7) on the baking soda sample to determine the percent composition of sodium bicarbonate in the sample. A sample of the baking soda will be heated until it decomposes to leave solid sodium carbonate according to the following equation: 2NaHCO3(s) --> Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(g) Eq.
Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to investigate whether mass is gained or lost during a chemical reaction. Hypothesis: It will be found out that the mass is neither gained nor lost during a chemical reaction but transferred. Materials: * Safety goggles * Erlenmeyer flask * Balance * Graduated Cylinder * Beaker * Iron (III) chloride solution * Copper (II) sulphate solution * Sodium bicarbonate * Test tubes (small, and large) * Rubber Stopper * Tweezers * Paper towel * Scoopula * Sodium hydroxide solution * Hydrochloric acid Procedure: 1. 5ml of iron (III) chloride was measured and placed in the Erlenmeyer flask. 2.
Halides Lab: Background information: Halide ions are reactive and useful. Salts are positively charged ions (metals) combined with any negative ions (nonmetal), and when placed in a solution (water) it separates into the cations and anions that made it up. The Purpose of this lab is to find out how the Halides react with the indicators, and to determine the identity of the two unknown solutions (A and B). Color of solutions prior to experiment: NaF | NaCI | KBr | KI | Unknown A | Unknown B | clear | clear | clear | clear | clear | clear | Color of indicator prior to experiment: 5% Bleach (NaOCI) | 0.2 M Na2S2O3 | 0.1 M AgNO3 | 0.5 M Ca(NO3)2 | clear | clear | clear | clear | Halide solutions | NaF | NaCI | KBr | KI | unknown A | unknown B | Test 1: Ca(NO3)2 | Cloudy White (Nothing) | Clear | Nothing | light yellow (Nothing) | Nothing | Nothing | Test 2, Part A: AgNO3 | clear (Nothing) | Milky White | Gold (Cloudy yellow) | milky green (Cloudy yellow) | turned white, film developed on top layer | Milky | Test 2, Part B: add Na2S2O3 to test tube from part A | Dark Orange/brown | Clear | Dark Gold(precipitate yellow then clear) | milky green (no change) | white precipitation, settled on bottom | Milky | Test 3: NaOCI (Bleach) | Clear (Nothing) | Nothing | Nothing | Orange (Clear) | Nothing | Orange | Unknown A is identified as NaCI (Sodium Chloride), because in test#1 the solution turned a cloudy white color when Ca(NO3)2 (Calcium nitrate) was added. In the first part of test#2, when AgNO3 (Silver nitrate) is added, the solution turned white, with a thin layer of film developing on the surface.
| Centrifuge: used to isolate the solid from the solution | . Focus Questions: When acidified water is not used in the zinc and iodine synthesis, zinc hydroxide is formed. How can it be identified based on the amphoteric nature. When zinc and iodine react without the presence of acetic acid in the water, zinc hydroxide forms. This is evident because the substance tested positive for both the acid test and the base test for zinc hydroxide.
The flasks were thoroughly cleaned with distilled water. 3. Samples of the Ammonium Persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8), Potassium Iodide (KI), Ammonium Sulfate ((NH4)2S2O4), Potassium Nitrate (KNO3), Sodium Thiosulfate (Na2S2O3), and Starch were placed in separate Erlenmeyer flasks. 4. Each flask was labeled according to its content (i.e.
Therefore, acetic acid was used for this experiment. It reacted with the sodium hypochlorite to give hypochlorous acid, which thenreacted with the oxygen of the alcohol. Steam distillation was used to isolated product, and then was extracted into the distillate with ether with the addition of dying agent calcium chloride. Finally, the ether was removed to get the product, cyclohexanone with the "salting out" process. The process of salting out was used to separate cyclohexanone from the aqueous solution to purify the product.
Examine the effect of heat on the solubility of albumin B. Examine the effect of pH changes on the solubility of albumin and casein C. Examine the effects of 95% ethanol, lead(II) nitrate, silver nitrate, and tannic acid on albumin and casein Procedure A. The effect of heat Place about 1 mL of 2% albumin in a test tube and heat it in a hot water bath for a few minutes. Compare the appearance to the albumin solution at room temperature. B.