", but is known popularly today as Little Albert. Around the age of nine months, Watson and Rayner exposed the child to a series of stimuli including a white rat, a rabbit, a monkey, masks and burning newspapers and observed the boy's reactions. The boy initially showed no fear of any of the objects he was shown. The next time Albert was exposed the rat, Watson made a loud noise by hitting a metal pipe with a hammer. Naturally, the child began to cry after hearing the loud noise.
This created fear because he could have caught Ebola before he knew it and nobody knew for sure if it was airborne. ESCAPED MONKEY- An Ebola-infected monkey escaped from its cage and possibly the room. The book talked about how they didn’t exactly know where the monkey ran to or who it would attack. If it were to attack someone, it could cause an outbreak in the United States. Richard Preston also went into detail about Rhonda’s dream of the monkey injecting her with its blood.
Skinner studied operant conditioning by conducting experiments using animals which he placed in a “Skinner Box” which was similar to Thorndike’s puzzle box. What is Classical Conditioning? Classical conditioning is the way we develop responses to certain stimuli that are not naturally occurring, e.g. when we touch a hot stove our reflex is to pull our hand back. It does so instinctively and no learning is involved, it is merely a survival instinct.
By using the link between the movie and book the images persuade the responder to think the same of what the audience felt like in 1895 watching the movie. These feelings are of horror, fear and fright for Hugo. The composer has used features like the simile on page 455. It quotes ‘Hugo sat there like an animal, wet and shivering in the corner of his cage.’ The simile helps the audience to really know the situation of Hugo and what he was going through, getting trapped was what he dreaded all his life and it has become reality. The responder feels sympathy towards him like anyone would when you see an animal wet and shivering in the corner of a cage.
Courage: The quality of mind or spirit that enables a person to face difficulty, danger, pain, etc., without fear. The novel To Kill a Mocking Bird revolves around the theme of courage, whether it is getting courage to play a silly game such as “Getting Boo Radley to come out.” Things like Jem facing the Radley house and the adults about strip-poker and boo baiting, also when scout gains the courage to back down from a fight. Courage is not limited to one type of situation; it can be found in numerous places, and To Kill a Mocking Bird is a great example of that. The game of getting Boo Radley to come out may not seem very courageous from an adult point of view, but looking at it through a child’s mind is a completely different story. This game showed a physical type of courage for the kids because they were afraid of Boo Radley, so it took a lot of courage to try to get him out of the house.
Additionally, he also has negative traits, shown when he allows his children to be put in danger. Unknowingly, his children slip away to the jail and finds the mob that confronts Atticus. If he was a stricter parent, the children would not be able to leave. As a result, To Kill a Mockingbird should still be considered a timeless classic. In conclusion, To Kill a Mockingbird should be considered a timeless classic, because it has three-dimensional characters, and sends thoughtful themes.
Pavlov landed upon this theory by mistake whilst carrying out a different unrelated experiment with dogs. Nevertheless, he used this as an added advantage and modified his experiment with the dogs to prove his newly founded theory. Initially the dogs would salivate (unconditional response) when presented with food (neutral stimulus) and no response were obtained from the animals when presented with food (unconditional stimulus) were sounded on its own. For a period of time thereafter, the bell was sounded at the same time when the food was presented to the dogs. Eventually, the sound of the bell (now a conditioned response) was sufficient to make the dogs salivate (now conditioned response) in the absent of food.
A lot goes into classifying a psychopath; they are very manipulative but well liked and charming because of their incredible talent to hide under a facade of normality. I chose a very interesting article on how being classified as a psychopath can seal your fate. Before parole, prisoners are required to take the PCL-R or the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised to determine if they are considered a psychopath. Many prisoners score high on this test and it confirms that they are not going to be able to get out on parole or even at all, it’s very risky to release someone from prison with a high score on the PCL-R because of their high likelihood to commit another crime and the fact that the government has nothing to gain from releasing them. Back when Bob Hare had first come out with this checklist nobody had really considered what made a psychopath a psychopath, but Bob Hare opens up a new way of thinking.
Discuss two or more psychological explanations of phobic disorders (8 marks + 16 marks) One psychological explanation for phobic disorders can be explained by the behavioural approach. This approach proposes that phobias are acquired through conditioning. The case study of Little Albert showed he developed a fear of white furry objects through classical conditioning as he had experienced a furry rat, the neutral stimulus, being associated with a loud noise, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). The UCS produced an unconditioned response of fear and the furry object, now a conditioned stimulus, acquired the same properties so that when Albert saw it he cried because he was scared. Sue et al.
This was achieved by pairing the rat with a loud noise that already made Albert anxious. The anxiety that Albert portrayed was transferred to the rat because it was presented together with the noise. The response also generalised to other stimuli that resembled the rat, including a rabbit and a fur coat. Over time, conditioned responses like these gradually diminish in a process called extinction (Sammons 2010). Operant conditioning which was studied by B.F Skinner, this is where people learn to perform new behaviours through the consequences of the things they do.