Also the theory of Social Darwinism appealed to the protestant work ethic because they believed that anyone could become successful and prosper with hard work intelligence and perseverance. Social Darwinist also supported the idea of a laissez faire type policies in which they believed that the government should not regulate the marketplace. The ideas of Social Darwinism was used by many industrialist including Andrew Carnegie. Social Gospel was a moral reform movement promoted by protestant clergy Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden the reason behind this movement was the abuses of industrialism. It applied to biblical teachings and Christian ethics to industrialization and social problems.
BENTHAM developed the notion of democracy as a form protection for the individual into a case for universal suffrage. Utilitarian’s have argued that individuals will vote so as to advance or defend their interest. Bentham believed that universal suffrage is the only way of promoting the greatest happiness for the greatest number. However, liberals also have an ambivalent view of democracy. Liberalism places great stress on the protection of individual’s rights while democracy emphasise on collective control.
The Federalists were usually characterized as loose constructionists, which meant they focused more on the intent of the constitution and its framers, and believed that changes were necessary for the development of the nation. Although Republicans and Federalists were characterized as having these particular views towards the enactment of the Constitution, when Jefferson and Madison served as Presidents during the beginning of the 19th century from 1800 to 1817, it was proven that even though they seemed to believe in their own views, in reality when time came, they started changing their beliefs and becoming both strict and loose constructionists for the good of the nation, which was strongly advocated by Henry Clay and his American System. The same would occur for the Federalists, so generally, each side did not accurately characterize itself during the early 19th century and proved each side had its similar interest when interpreting the Constitution. Before Jefferson became President in 1800, The Federalists dominated national politics for the first decade of America’s governmental history because of George Washington and John Adams favoring Federalist views. It was not until the
However, this is not true because the Congress is both an independent and co-equal branch of Government. As David Obey said “We may belong to the same party but we are an independent branch”. Checks and balances are required to keep the government stable and avoid the President going against the wishes of the people. “I think Barack Obama is terrific. But people still need to recognise we have an institutional responsibility to do oversight on the President” Garry Bass, Congress.
Roosevelt’s republican party split, Taft’s separation from the ideas of Roosevelt, and Wilson’s democratic perspective bring light to the idea that although these men shared the progressive opinion, their ideas differed in many ways. Theodore Roosevelt was the brain behind the progressive party that would eventually lead to the split of the Republican party. Roosevelt called for the “Square Deal” between business, consumers, and labor and supported the “Strenuous Life”. Unlike the others, Roosevelt wished to destroy bad trusts and regulate the good ones rather than break them all up. Roosevelt was the first president to introduce progressive ways of thinking and although each president’s ideas were similar in ways such as trust busting and conservation measures, his ideas were the framework for the U.S. William Howard Taft was the presidential candidate hand picked by Roosevelt.
Jefferson and his republicans were believers in a strong state government. Jefferson wanted each state government to be responsible for their share in paying off the nation’s debt. Hamilton thought that the debt should be equally shared by the whole nation. Disagreements like these resulted in the creation of Hamilton’s Federalist party. Hamilton created his Federalist party to help promote his goals for the United States.
In other words, adopting a policy based on the principle of accepting the idea of the multiplicity of ideological doctrines, and understanding between the two camps concerning the international issues. The Two-Party System in America America has a stable two-party system that first emerged in the late 18th century as a conflict between Federalists led by Alexander Hamilton and the Republicans led by Thomas Jefferson. Basically, the roots of the conflict between the two parties were due to the differences in ideologies and views. Federalists wanted a powerful national government to push for aggressive economic development. Whereas, Republicans wanted a small national government to leave the citizens mostly free of taxation or government interference.
Woodrow Wilson’s Development in American Business Interest Woodrow Wilson described him self as a conservative, yet did not believe that “government must keep its hands off the workings of the economy” instead he felt government should “legislate to protect workers welfare and to regulate corporations”(9). While at Princeton University, Wilson studied history and political science and envisioned detailed solutions to national problems. While president, he now had the power to solve the issues, which he felt needed reform. During this time the United States was changing into an economic super power, monopolies and trusts were controlling the economy and exploiting workers; there was an obvious need for reform. One of Wilson’s first concerns was to reduce tariffs.
Many intellectuals during the Enlightenment explored new ideas in political economy; Adam Smith in his 1776 An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations was one of the most influential figures for the Americans. Smith admitted the mercantile system worked, yet criticized its principles. Expounding a doctrine of individualism, Smith was one of many voices stating that the economy, like the individual, should be free from detailed regulation from the state. Economic, as well as individual, self-interest and its outcome in the market should be allowed to function without state regulation. Although it was indeed approved by the First Continental Congress, the practice of mercantilism was replaced with a Smith-oriented form of liberalism in post-Revolutionary
Liberalism and Socialism Mark Minks Devry University Professor Fuss 6/18/14 Liberalism is a political ideology of 19th century that championed political democracy in the society. This ideology stressed intellectual inquiry, the rule of government by following law, protection of human beings from any arbitrary authority and the autonomy of citizens or individual in the society. Typically, this ideology draws its roots to the religious reformation of 16th century and it owes a lot of its ideals to John Locke and Thomas Hobbes argument that the governed are sovereign and they should not be ruled by an individual who argues that he or she has divine right (Gray, 2005). In 19th century, Adam Smith among other liberalists insisted that the state should not interfere with the societies’ economic life or status. In this respect, the main goal of liberalism is to promote a laissez-faire society and their main goal is preservation of human rights and freedoms.