While Licinius attacked Maximin, Constantine moved into Italy against Maxentius. The rivals for Italy met at the Milvian or Mulvian Bridge over the Tiber near Rome. Before the battle Constantine, who was already sympathetic toward Christianity, is said by Eusebius of Caesarea to have seen in the sky a flaming cross inscribed with the words, “In this sign thou shalt conquer.” He
Concurrently the king of Spain, Charles II, was nearing his deathbed with no heir to the Spanish throne. This left the European powers to debate upon how the Spanish empire would be ruled. In 1698 the first partition treaty is established between William III of England and Louis XIV. This partition treaty stated that the young Joseph Ferdinand would have the right to all Spanish possessions except Italy which was to be shared between the Habsburgs and the Bourbons, Milan which would go to the Austrians and the rest of Spanish Italy to the French (Lynn, 1999). By doing this both the French and English were hoping to prevent a reassembling of the great Habsburg domain held in the 16th century by the emperor Charles V. Charles II, drawing closer to his final hours, was outraged by this
The mainland leaders had no intention of including the lower classes (such as the peasants) in their new system of government. Although the revolt had scared Ferdinand I, the division of the people in the revolt, the lack of popular support, and the limited experience of its leaders meant that the revolution was doomed to failure. In 1871, there was another revolution on Piedmont- Sardinia, after hearing news of a revolution in Naples. Once again, the revolutionaries managed to frighten their ruler (Victor Emmanuel), and they were joined my middle class liberal revolutionaries and nobles.
Six Degree of Seperation: Event 1: Columbus discoverys the New World - 1492 Italian explorer Christopher Columbus convinced the Spanish monarchs to sponsor his voyage with three ships: the Santa Maria, the Pinta, and the Santa Clara. After six weeks of his first voyage, Columbus and his fellow seafarers stumbled upon the New World. Columbus's discovery would later lead to the Europeans colonizing on this new unknown land. Event 2: The Tready of Tordesillas - 1494 One of the first Europeans to take advantage of Columbus's discovery was the Spaniards. Since the New World offered raw materials such as gold and silver, the Spaniards were eager to start colonizing and conquering the New World.
However, on 8 April, Italy and Prussia signed an agreement that supported Italy's acquisition of Venetia, and on 20 June Italy declared war on Austria. Victor Emmanuel hastened to lead an army across the Mincio to the invasion of Venetia, while Garibaldi was to invade the Tyrol with his Hunters of the Alps. The enterprise ended in disaster. The Italian army encountered the Austrians at Custoza on 24 June and suffered a defeat. On 20 July the Regia Marina was defeated in the battle of Lissa.
With French intervention, Austria seemed to worry after already being beaten at the battles of Magenta and Solferino. The Piedmontese played no part at Magenta but a good part at Solferino, with both battles causing carnage from both sides. Due to Napoleons disgust at the amount of soldiers lost Napoleon made a separate peace treaty with Austria at Villafranca, giving the French the chance needed to defend its own boarders from Prussia, whilst controlling Cavour’s actions and interests in Tuscany. Lombardy was given to France, who then gave it to Piedmont, proving to those involved that without intervention by France Piedmont would not have gained Lombardy, as Austria was too strong for Piedmont
The main reasons I will be looking at for why the revolutions failed are The Pope’s Allocution, they didn’t have a common goal, France, lack of foreign support and also the power of Austria. With the appointment of the new Pope, Pope Pius X1 in 1846, the states of Italy believed they would have a better chance of unification. Pope Pius was the first liberal pope Italy had seen and he gained support by ending censorship, telling Austrians to leave a town in the Papal States and he also released 2000 political prisoners. These actions had Metternich scared. He even quoted ‘we were prepared for anything, except a liberal Pope.
“The Italian government signed a secret treaty with the Spanish Nationalists… they agreed to allow Italy to establish bases in Spain if there was a war with France” (Simkin). “He (Mussolini) hoped to defeat the left in Spain, gain a new ally in Franco, who might grant Italy a naval base on one of the Balearic Island” (Williamson 150), “his great ambition was to rival British naval power and challenge the French in North
AP European History Research Paper The War of Spanish Succession (1701 – 1714) The War fought over dispute regarding the succession to the throne of Spain following the death of Charles II, the last of the Spanish Habsburgs. The battles raged across Europe for eleven years. In an effort to regulate the inevitable succession; England, the Dutch Republic, and France signed the First Treaty of Partition, agreeing Prince Joseph Ferdinand, should inherit Spain. As a result of the War of Spanish Succession England and France were left as the two dominate forces in Europe and the idea of the “balance of power” was born. The war was fought between conflicting nations with the main goal for any respective nation being picking a side.
These reforms were not welcomed by the Janissaries (Ottoman soldiers) who, through the trepidation of Europe, had now become unsuccessful on the battlefield. When Selim began arising an infantry force known as the Nizam-i Cedit (New Order) it awakened acrimonious opposition among the Janissaries who saw this new army as a menace to their existence. The Janissaries ultimately acknowledged the European-inspired reforms to be contrary to Islamic law and with the backing of the Shaykh al-Islam (grand scholar of the Ottoman Empire), they mutinied. They prospered in overthrowing (and later murdering) Selim and replacing him with