In 1625 Buckingham decided England needed a new ally in Europe in France after the failure of the Spanish match, they could see diplomatic advantages, France was becoming worried about the successes of the Hapsburg Spanish and might be persuaded to take part against them. This however made Puritan minded MPs suspicious of Charles as not only was Henrietta Maria, the King’s prospective wife, Catholic, but also the terms of marriage included toleration for Catholics – something Parliament would certainly not welcome, rather it resented the Crown’s decision to do this. The Alliance with France however, had broken down by 1627 leading England into war. Buckingham was to blame because it was his flawed policy of creating an alliance with the French under terms not possible to keep such as toleration for Catholics, which caused the French Chief Minister to decide not to join the English in a war against the Hapsburgs, because of which Buckingham reversed his policy of French alliance. Furthermore to gain popularity Buckingham decided to help the Huguenots who were held at the port of La Rochelle – again this was another flawed move as now England was at war with two countries.
In 1543 a very weak and ill Henry married his last wife, Catherine Parr. This marriage meant power for the reformist faction. Catherine Parr was a committed Protestant, this showed that the conservative faction were losing ground. Her presence and influence with the king gave the reformist faction a definite advantage. However,
The restoration of the English monarchy The restoration of the Stuart kings in 1660 failed to solve the problems of religion and the relationship between King and Parliament. The Test Act of 1673 stipulated that only Church of England members could vote, hold office, preach, teach, attend the universities, or assemble, but these restrictions could not be enforced. Charles II appointed a council of five men (the "Cabal") to serve as both his major advisers and as members of Parliament. The Cabal was the forerunner of the cabinet system, and it helped create good relations with the Parliament. Charles's proFrench policies led to a Catholic scare.
attacks and revolts broke out b. Moctezuma was killed (by whom?) c. the Spanish were forced to flee 4. when the Spanish returned: (explain) 5. Cortes conquered the Aztecs and became one of the richest men in the world J. The Spanish continued colonizing North America, establishing many cities that are still round today K. Balboa’s discovery of the Pacific (from America) triggered a rush of non-Spanish speaking explorers looking for the Northwest Passage 1. importance of finding the Northwest Passage: (explain) 2. while Spain was establishing colonies in southern North America, England and France were exploring the northern parts (current day United States and Canada) L. England will ultimately challenge Spain for the “rights to the sea” 1. Sir Francis Drake was an English “sea dog” (pirate) who raided Spanish ships returning with valuables 2.
The main attraction that prompted England to begin colonizing North America in the early seventeenth century was the promise of gold, combined with a strong desire to find a passage through America to the Indies . Ch. 2 2. Discuss the conflicts with Native Americans in the early history of England ’s southern colonies. Include cause and results and provide specific examples.
Mary came to the throne in 1553 only after crushing a plot by the leaders of the Protestant elite to place her cousin, Lady Jane Grey, on the throne, instead of her. She had promised mercy to many of the rebellion's leaders, but in 1554 there were two more disturbances against her rule. They were orchestrated by Jane Grey's father, the marquis of Dorset, and Sir Thomas Wyatt, son of a family with strong emotional ties to the Boleyns (and, thus, Elizabeth, Mary's Protestant half-sister.) This showed that there was strong Protestant sympathies against Mary and that leniency would not prevent them from rising up against her again. Thus, political brutality was called for.
In the year of 1492 Christopher Columbus discovered the ‘New World’ which we now call North America while trying to find an alternate and faster route to the Indies. Upon his arrival he discovered indigenous people of North America. Between the years of 1492 and 1607 The French, British, and Spanish arrived and colonized the area. Between the three countries lied many social and political differences that affect the indigenous people greatly. Columbus’ journey to find a quicker route the Indies began in 1942 after he was given the funds from the King and Queen of Spain, Ferdinand and Isabel.
But you win some and you lose some. One in particular was the war against Spain, differences in religion and conflicts dealing with power and wealth in the new world made this war arise. This war went on for 16 years. Queen Elizabeth eventually died, and James I of England took the throne. In 1603 the war ended, and King James I issued a degree that all acts of piracy must be stopped.
4. European Societies of the 1400s The Social Hierarchy - Monarchy and Aristocracy, social position by birth Christianity Shapes the European Outlook - Crusades fail to take holy land but inspire exploration. Reformation - splitting of Protestant from Catholics - conflicts lead to search for religious freedom. European Nations Take Shape - Portugal, Spain, France, England The Renaissance - meaning rebirth, stimulation of culture, science, art, advanced by introduction of printing process Johann Gutenberg. Europe Enters a new Age of Expansion - search for wealth Gold/Silver development of firearms gives significant them advantage Sailing Technology Improves - Caravel pg 12 compass and astrolabe Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal leads the way.
In 1898 the Spanish- American war began when America decided to liberate the Spanish colonies Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines. The US won and gained control of the colonies, although instead of liberating the colonies they had fought to free and continue the fight against imperialism they became what they had been telling the world that they resented, an empire. This was the first step the US took towards becoming the world’s toughest police officer. After the First World War was won, President Wilson proposed 14 points at the meeting in Versailles that the rest of the world should follow to gain stability and peace in the world. This was the second step.