So many divisions and factions within the opponents all wanting different things for Russia shows responsibility for the survival of the Tsar as they were too busy against each other, than to unite against the Tsar. Divisions amongst the opposition further disagreed on the methods to overthrow the Tsar. The Liberals preferred reform rather than violence, and peaceful propaganda such as articles in newspapers, meetings and reform banquets. Mensheviks were in favour of alliance with all other revolutionary and bourgeois liberal parties, and supported trade unions in pursuing better wages and conditions for workers. Whereas the Bolsheviks rejected cooperation with other parties, and aimed to turn workers into revolutionaries as soon as possible.
This was an economic concession that Lenin was forced to make due to the deteriorating economic conditions and the real threat of a revolt against the Bolshevik government. It was always intended as a temporary measure, and the question after Lenin’s death wasn’t whether it should continue or not, but how it should be put an end to. The debate lay between the left-wing, lead by Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev, who advocated a quick movement into rapid industrialisation, which would mean abandoning the New Economic Policy, militarising the labour forces and exploiting peasants for grain to fund the industrialisation; and the right-wing, led by Bukharin, who wanted to continue the New Economic Policy for another 20 years, which would mean peasants would grow wealthier and be encouraged to buy consumer goods, which in turn would lead to more products being made in factories and a gradual process of industrialisation. This became a passionate issue because economic policy was also at the heart of the debate of what a socialist society should look like. The growth of a rich super class led to activities such as property dealing, land speculation, gambling and prostitution, all of which conflicted greatly with the ideology of Communism.
To achieve self- sufficiency: • Stalin wanted to make the USSR less dependent – especially on Western manufactured goods. • It was important that the USSR had a strong industrial base to produce the goods people needed. • He wanted to make Russia more self-sufficient and less dependent. To increase grain supplies: • Stalin wanted to end the dependence of the economy on a backward agricultural system – he did not want the new socialist state to depend on the peasantry for agricultural supplies. To move towards a socialist society: • According to Marxist theory, socialism could only be created in a society where the majority of the population were workers – but in 1928, only 20% were workers in the USSR.
'How far were the divisions over the continuation of the New Economic Policy responsible for the outcome of the power struggle in the years 1924-1929? ‘ The New Economic Policy (NEP) was introduced in 1921 by Bukharin and Lenin, primarily due to Russia’s urgent need for food, which offered the peasantry a partial response to small-scale capitalism and a free market economy. The aim of this was to win over the poor peasantry to the side of the proletarian dictatorship. The NEP divided the CPSU, as many believed that it was “anti-communist”, as it allowed a capitalist structure under a communist party. In order to prevent the NEP tearing his Bolshevik party apart, however, Lenin introduced a “ban on factionalism”, and this stifled criticism of the NEP.
Finally, Stalin was also responsible for recruitment. In 1921, roughly one quarter of the communist Party’s members were serving in the red army and were therefore loyal to Trotsky. However, the recruitment drive known as the Lenin Enrolment in 1923-25 enabled Stalin to increase the size of the party and thereby reduce Trotsky’s influence. Bukharin had a certain control over the media and education and this was seen as a threat to Stalin, but Stalin had none of this and had used his organisational powers to appoint Bukharin’s deputies and restrict his ability of using the media effectively. Also, the 1921 ban on factions prevented minority groups within the party from challenging the leadership of the party, so Stalin used
Plekhanov did not believe in terrorist ideas but rather supported a more social idea, working with industrial workers and peasants. After closely interacting with many Marxist groups, the Social Democratic Labour Party was formed, with the 'father of Russian Marxism' as its leader. Like Marx, Plekhanov believed that it was the industrial proletariat who would bring about a socialist revolution; he stated that a successful revolution to overthrow the Tsarist regime was too early to take place in Russia. Despite his popularity at the start of the campaign, many members soon became too impatient with their leader; demanding for a more active programme to be formed. Vladimir Ulyanov was one of the members that constantly criticised the theories of
The first step Stalin took towards removing the threat of Trotsky was to lie to him about the date of Lenin’s funeral. As a result, Trotsky was absent. This is important because it appeared that Trotsky wasn’t interested in being present at Lenin’s burial. It also allowed Stalin to steal on a march on Trotsky because, in Trotsky’s absence, Stalin gave a speech, in which he dedicated himself to the continuation of Lenin’s ways. This speech was important because it allowed Stalin to appear as one of the leading mourners, and also suggesting continuity between himself and Lenin.
He issued his famous April Thesis, which had his promise of ‘Peace, Land and Bread’ which was cleverly aimed at the majority of Russia (peasants wanted land, everyone wanted peace and there was a bread shortage which made problems for most people). This message became more and more popular throughout 1917, especially amongst the workers in the cities which explains why Lenin’s leadership was important. However, Lenin’s promise wouldn’t have been so powerful if the Provisional Government had not consistently made serious mistakes, such as failing to resolve the problem of food shortages, high inflation and the redistribution of land. Lenin’s return to Russia helped the Bolsheviks gain power because his slogans were attractive when the Provisional Government started to fail. Therefore, we don’t know if Lenin would have been as successful if the Provisional Government were not failing.
Also they didn’t have the significant funds to invest in an industrial revolution. So Witte introduced a plan for economic growth known as the ‘Witte System’. The government were to sponsor and direct the economic growth, emphasising the production of capital goods. Also, due to lack of funds, Russia gained financial backing from foreign countries such as Britain, which was a major factor for the development. Finally, the ‘Witte System’ enforced extra taxes to the over taxed peasants, creating more funds.
The ideological differences between contenders for power had a little affect on the struggle for power following lenin’s death in 1924. The way that Stalin used the fact that the contenders for power had ideological differences against them and made sure they all were against each other is what had the most affect on the struggle for power following Lenin’s death in 1924. Stalin used his position as a general secretary, his opposition’s weaknesses against them and was smart about it as he did nothing that could make anyone question his aims. In this essay i will show how Stalin, with the help of Lenin, his position and his smart tactics had the most influence on the struggle for power following lenin’s death. With Trotsky being on the extreme left and Bukharin on the extreme right an alliance between them was unthinkable, which created a struggle for power.