In the late 19th century, Russia began its process of industrialization following its defeat at the hands of Western nations in the Crimean War. Russia's Industrial Revolution was further helped along by its growing population and an increasing labor force. As the industrial process continued, it gave new job opportunities such as: in mining, factory work, and railroad construction. This influx of jobs was taken by an influx of people, where it came from the country to work in the cities as cheap laborers, taking up dangerous and low-paying jobs. In spite of all these changing times and circumstances, the tension between the upper and lower classes remained tenser than ever before, building up under the fabric of society.
How far do you agree that Sergei Witte’s policies were successful in modernising the Russian economy in 1892-1904? During Tsar Nicholas II’s reign, he decided he needed someone to improve the Russian economy, so he appointed a Financial Minister; Sergei Witte. Witte introduced a number of reforms that both improved and further damaged Russia’s economy, and believed that the only way Russia could modernise itself and catch up with the more industrialised West was through State Capitalism. Witte was very enthusiastic about the expansion on the Trans-Siberian railway, which, when completed, stretched across Russia from St. Petersburg in the West to Vladivostok in the Far East. Witte believed that the construction of this railway was crucial to the economic growth of Russia, because it would make it possible to take advantage of the economic potential of Siberia.
Stalin was trying to push the people so they can be an advanced country. He wanted to make up the difference between the advanced countries and Russia in 10 years. He said, "Either we do it or we will be crushed." Stalin's Five-Year Plans set high production goals for heavy industry and transportation. Other changes Stalin made were to increase production in agriculture by the collectivization policy.
Conversely, the higher-value rouble helped increase the prices of goods. Witte's main method for raising the capital and modernisation would be the Trans-Siberian Railway, which from 1881 to 1900 increased from 13,000 to 33,000 miles. It was hoped it would encourage east to West migration of workers, to feed in to industry, however this did not happen. Instead, it helped growth and exports of Russia by making transportation of materials far easier. On the other hand, the growth in population compared with national output shows less production per head, and therefore less efficient production.
How Successful Were The Russian Governments In Promoting Economic Change And Modernisation Between 1881 and 1904? When Alexander III came into power, he made sure that industrialization was at the forefront of his plans. So under Vyshnedgradsky and Witte, various measures were imposed to help kick start industrialization, which led to significant economic change The improved transport system, which resulted from government investment in infrastructure like the railways, helped to vastly improve Russia’s economic situation. This is evident through the clear positive correlation between railway improvements and increases in Russia’s industrial output. The length of railway tracks in Russia increased form 31219 miles in 1891 to 58392 miles by 1904.
How successful were Stalin’s industrial policies in developing the Russian economy in the years 1928-41 ? During the first five year plans Stalin focuses on developing the countries economy as a means to turn the Soviet Union into a modern world power and to improve the living standards of all Soviet citizens. Later in the period Stalin focusses on establishing Russia as a world power through strengthening Russia’s military power. In order to achieve this, Stalin believed in collectivisation and industrialization. By collectivizing and industrializing the agriculture and industries.
They faced problems such as Industrialisation, meaning that it was increasingly difficult to find members as there weren’t enough workers. Then in 1898 there was the establishment of Russian Social Democratic and Labour Party. This was much more successful as Industrialisation had now begun. Meaning there were more workers who could join. However after this Lenin, Martov and Plekhanov fall out causing the SD’s to split into the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks in 1903.
“Why was Russia so hard to govern in the 19th Century?” Russia was so hard to govern in the 19th Century due to the political situation, angry people and diverse economy. Firstly, the Tsar/ina was so out of touch with the public by the time it became possible for things to start changing in countries that even though they now had the power to make changes they wouldn’t know what needed changing by this point. This meant the relationship between the
During the Nineteenth and Twentieth century the impressive leap in terms of industrialisation throughout Western Europe had moved the world forward, However Russia “could not generate enough capital to support rapid industrial development or to compete with advanced countries.” Russia’s incredibly diverse and expansive land made it very hard for Russian people to collaborate, as well as having difficulties with utilising Russia’s resources. This led to Russia being almost 100 years less industrially developed in the early Twentieth century The Russia that can be considered as Modern Russia would be that of the 1960s. There were massive changes to how Russia was viewed by the mid-20th century, such as it being a huge economic superpower, the high tension between America and the USSR resulting in the cold war, and the development of Nuclear weapons such as RDS-1 and ‘layer cake’: Russia’s hydrogen bomb. This means that the turning points should be judged by which moved Russia more towards the modern Russia they were known as in the 60s. Smitha talks of how “Russia fought the Crimean War with the largest standing army in Europe.” This being said, having the biggest army
War breaking out in 1914 meant the Russian economy had to change to be suitable for the Total war Russia was involved in. Due to the size of Russia different resources had to be transported from different areas by rail lines, which by 1914 it had 44,000 miles but they still were not sufficient to transport large quantities of materials to supply both the industrial needs, military needs and the civilian. Due to shortages in the cities inflation rates went up however wages did not increase fast enough so there were discontent among the workers, between 1914 and 1916 inflation rose by 232% .By 1917 Petrograd and Moscow got a third of the fuel and food it needed due to these resources being sent to the front to supply the army, or the supplies spoiling due to the military use and commandeering of the rail lines. If factories failed to receive the resources it needed to carry out, the factory closed