A MacDonald faced major challenges such as problems between the English and French, ongoing annexation threats from America, as well as large economic issues while holding his position as Prime Minister. Since the beginning, the thought of cultural nationalism seemed impossible due to the French and English relations. Obtaining the physically enormous Rupert’s Land for Canada was essential, but Louis Riel and his French Canadian Métis group reacted violently when their home joined confederation. Although Macdonald peacefully purchased the land from Britain (unlike the American West, acquired through military means), Riel wrote up demands for his colony. When these were denied, the Métis captured the expansionists and murdered one uncooperative member: Thomas Scott.
Do you agree with the view expressed in Source K, that the diplomatic situation was the main reason for Henry’s failure to attain an annulment from Catherine by 1529? It is very clear that there was more than one factor that caused some difficulties for Henry VIII’s failure to gain an annulment from his marriage to Catherine by 1529. However, it is possible that the diplomatic situation has role in his failure, as it didn't help his case of getting an annulment and caused an impediment to his situation. Since the Pope was under the influence of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, it made Henry’s situation more difficult due to the fact that he needed the Pope to grant his annulment, and what made it worse was that Charles V was the nephew of Catherine and had a great input into any of the Pope’s decisions. Source K argues that the Diplomatic situation was a highlight of Henry’s failed attempt to gaining an annulment.
There were many factors that aided the outbreak in 1455, however I believe that these factors were all results of Henry’s inadequacies as king, or could have been prevented if Henry was a more suitable ruler. There are long term causes that could have had an impact on war in 1455. We could blame the shift in power towards the nobility. Certainly in the early 14th century with rulers such as Edward II (who was murdered by nobles), this became prevalent. His successor Edward III managed to stabilize this relationship, by creating crusades in France, focusing their energies into conquests which began the 100 years wby w05anettletonar.
On the contrary, the marriage would safeguard England as any heir Mary and Philip may have produced would have inherited the Netherlands and England. This could potentially become a secure and substantial empire; therefore at this point in time, Spain was an ally to England. However, Spain was soon to become much less of an ally to England, demonstrated by Philip’s actions soon after their marriage. He only visited England in 1556, when he wanted England to join Spain in war with France in 1557. Spain had already defeated France when England captured St Quentin and the war soon led to England losing its last foothold in Europe - Calais.
Henry VIII’s foreign policy between the years of 1509 – 1529 revolved around his fantasy of becoming a famous “warrior King.” His main aim was to conquer France, as he believed that the French crown was rightfully his, he was not however successful in this aim, despite capturing obscure towns in France such as Tournai. Henry went through three phases of foreign policy during these years: Initial aggression in his first French war between ending in 1514, the following a rather unsuccessful French campaign, entered a stage of diplomacy where he attempted to gain allies and achieve European peace through the treaty of London, 1518. But it can be argued that little success came from this period either with very few significant agreements made in the Treaty of London or the Field of the Cloth of gold except for minor prestige for Henry and England, but at huge costs. As well as this, any hopes of finally conquering France in Henry’s second aggressive phase were crushed due to financial and political obstacles. Henry was aware that the current French king, Louis XII was dying and wished to avoid war at all costs, as he would not be able to guide his country in his old, weak age, Henry realised that this was the ideal situation in which for him to launch an attack, he also had the support of the nobility, who were raring to have a fight.
The sources do suggest that Scotland was a threat towards Henry VIII’s ambitions in France , however only to some extent. Sources 1 and 3 refer to Scotland’s potential to destroy Henrys campaigns in France through invasion and stop him achieving his aim in taking back the regions of Terrain and Thoraine. Source 2 on the otherhand shows us that Henrys troops were strong enough to prevent a Scottish invasion even in his absence, and that he had the support of his first wife Catherine of Aragon. who is acting as regent in henry’s absence, Catherin would have wanted to please henry to keep his moral high as he was also in a battle in France at the time. source 2 shows us that the Scottish had lost in the battle of Flodden in 1513, at a time when henry was absent form his country in France.
In this essay i will explore the factors in the beginning of conflict in 1455 England. One key factor for the outbreak of conflict was the ambitions of Richard Duke of York, He wanted his heirs to be king and after Yorks protectorate somerset questioned Yorks loyalty to the king, Another factor is the influence Margaret of Anjou had on the weak minded king Henry VI, Convincing him that York was not to be trusted. In my opinion Yorks ambitions played a part in the conflict to a minor extent. Richard, Duke of York primarily wanted his heirs to be king, to ensure this in the early parts of his life he was not interested in taking the throne from the current king Henry VI but instead supported him and acted as lord protector, If his ambitions were important to him surely he could of fought sooner, Until Henry’s recovery in 1455 relations with the king and York were strong, Once the king recovered and had no need for York, he made Somerset Captain of Calais and Protector of the king, this may have felt like betrayal to york after being lord protector weeks before. This squashed Yorks ambitions to gain the throne for his heirs, After the announcement that the King and Somerset were to hold a council in leicester without the involvement of York and Warwick, York acted quickly to raise his army to intercept the Kings army.
These acts were sometimes reversed as it was in this case, he was reinstated as Earl of Surrey in 1489 to help put down an uprising in Northumberland. This gave Henry ultimate power over his dangerously powerful nobles, meaning he could use them to his advantage when he needed to, as well as being able to suppress them. However, Henry VII was also unsuccessful in strengthening his authority as King as he continued to be increasingly paranoid about threats from foreign powers and pretenders. His weak hold on foreign policy in Europe meant that in 1491 France began to aid the imposture of Perkin Warbeck, a young man pretending to be Edward, Earl of Warwick, an heir to the English Throne with a stronger claim than the King himself. ...read more.
Therefore when evaluating the reforms Wolsey managed to implement or fall back on in this particular case, it is important to judge by the standards of sixteenth century citizens rather than our own. One of the most important reasons for Wolsey’s lack of success was his pride and inability to forget past matters, in turn leading him to target influential people that could easily overpower his reforms, such as his battles against enclosure. A particular example of this is his feud with Amyas Paulet. Several years before assuming power, Paulet had placed Wolsey in the stocks after creating a riot. Once Wolsey had gained position as Lord Chancellor, Wolsey forced Amyas Paulet to wait in daily attendance in Wolsey’s court for five years and if failing to do so, would have all his property confiscated.
The war against France from 1512-14 was a perfect chance for him to show his skills with foreign policy. England formed an alliance with the Pope, Ferdinand V of Spain and Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor against Louis XII of France. The first campaign was not a success, however Wolsey learned from his mistakes and in 1513 he launched a joint attack with papal support on France and successfully captured two French cities and caused the French to retreat. Wolsey was able to supply the troops during the war which led them to success. In 1514 he also negotiated the Anglo-French treaty which created temporary peace between the two countries and let Louis XII marry Mary, Henrys younger sister.