John A. Macdonald's Major Challenges

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The idea of Nationalism between the British North American colonies did not seem logical in the ninetieth century due to the vast cultural differences spanning from east to west. John A. MacDonald, leader of the Tories, thought otherwise. With a great understand of sociology and seeing the “bigger picture”, he was able to convince the colonies to come together. The illegal Alabama and Trent Affairs, as well as the raids by the angry American-Irishmen proved to be some of the external pressure for confederation. Political Deadlock initiated internal pressure resulting in multiple conferences to discuss this great coalition. Once convinced (despite some bitterness), on July 1st 1867, the Dominion of Canada was created including 4 provinces, with 3 to follow. Although a great accomplishment, many unforeseen problems would arise. John. A MacDonald faced major challenges such as problems between the English and French, ongoing annexation threats from America, as well as large economic issues while holding his position as Prime Minister. Since the beginning, the thought of cultural nationalism seemed impossible due to the French and English relations. Obtaining the physically enormous Rupert’s Land for Canada was essential, but Louis Riel and his French Canadian Métis group reacted violently when their home joined confederation. Although Macdonald peacefully purchased the land from Britain (unlike the American West, acquired through military means), Riel wrote up demands for his colony. When these were denied, the Métis captured the expansionists and murdered one uncooperative member: Thomas Scott. Macdonald immediately knew that he must resolve this conflict. With the French from Quebec supporting the Métis, Macdonald would accept Riel’s demands passing the Manitoba Act, making The Red River Colony a province. He also sent out Canadian Troops to control the
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