How Does Media Affect The Media

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Studying the relationship or influence that media, in all its forms has on its viewers or audience has always been controversial. The debate on whether the media, in this case television, just portray what the society is, like a reflection of the society or does the society mirror what the media projects still hasn’t culminated into much with most even now, taking contradictory stands. Does the media merely show the violence that the society constitutes of? Innumerable studies have been conducted to understand the same, one of the most famous of which was the Payne Studies in the year 1920, looking at the impact of violence on children. By the 1960s, the studies started focusing on understanding the increase in the prevalence of violence in…show more content…
Some long term studies, trying to understand the harmful effects media has on us, gave rise to five different theories; namely Catharisis Theory, Aggressive Cues Theory, Observational Learning Theory, Reinforcement Theory, Cultivation Theory. Leonard Berkowitz, a social psychologist, whose finest work remains the in the domain of human aggression with his books ‘Aggression: A Social Psychological Analysis in 1962 and Aggression: Its Causes, Consequesnces and Control in 1993’, suggested that media’s depiction of brutality or barbarity acts as a catalyst for aggressive thoughts.Aggressive cues theory essentially states that the amount of violence endorsed or shown by media increases the risk of violent behaviour. Berkowitz affirms that frustration augments an individuals susceptibility to committing violent acts.This theory maintains that components of depicted media violence act as cues for angry individuals and when violence is dignified or somehow portrayed as though its payed homage to or ennobled, consequently is seen to have a carry forward effect in real-life responses as…show more content…
In the movie, they gather to fight not out of spite or hatred for each other but because fighting is a common medium of release for them. Various studies conducted state a direct correlation between the aggregate of time spent watching violence portrayed in media, the television in specific, to aggressive behaviour in adulthood. Aggressive behaviours in children are also observed to increase when they are exposed to violent media because they seem to take it as an encouragement of sorts, because new forms of aggression are brought to their notice. The Tasmanian Devil in Looney Toons and Baby Looney Toons is an example of a violence in children’s entertainment.Berkowitz says that a number of different aversive stimuli, frustration for example, may initiate aggressive responses but aversive stimuli alone do not by themselves orchestrate aggressive behaviour; they simply bring about a readiness for aggressive action. Only if appropriate aggressive cues are present as environmental stimuli, will such conduct surface. These external stimuli that he speaks of are nothing but aggressive cues, providing a sort of impetus or acting as a catalyst to bring about an aggressive behaviour or response in an individual.According to Leonard Berkowitz, aggressive cues theory is similar to that of classical conditioning because if specific environmental elements

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