How Beneifcial to Russian Empire Were the Main Economic Trends Between 1881-1905?

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How beneficial to the Russian Empire were the main economic trends between 1881 and 1905? The main economic trends were beneficial to the Russian empire to an extent as it both improved the Russian economy on a global market, but at the same time brought about problems for the working class. The Russian empire benefited from the agricultural reforms brought on by Bunge and Vyshnegradsky in 1882 as it meant that peasant could borrow money and make their landholdings more efficient. Before these reforms peasants were unable to improve their farming techniques due to the lack of finances and therefore it encouraged subsistence agriculture that would not yield any income to invest in the farms. The reforms meant that the emphasis would be on the improvement of the agriculture industry, led by the serfs (usually agricultural labourers). The actions of Sergei Witte were also highly beneficial to the Russian Empire. Witte wanted the modernisation of the Russian empire and to do this he needed to industrialise like Britain and Germany who had industrialised long before Russia. As a result of this, Russia had started on the back foot as their economy was poor and therefore the currency, the Rubble, was almost worthless; this meant that securing loans would be difficult. To counteract this re-launched the Rouble in 1897 meant that loans could be acquired in order to invest in industrialisation. This was successful has huge loans were acquired from abroad from countries such as France, Belgium and Britain. The money from the loans was invested into industries such as coal, oil and metal, especially into the industry in Siberia. The impact of this was that for the first time, Russia was exploiting its natural resources. The emphasis on capital goods such as iron, steel and coal was so that they could be used in the building of further factories and machinery. This machinery
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