Genghis Khan Invades Persia

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Genghis Khan, the ruler of Mongolia, Invaded the Khwarezmid Empire for both economic and personal reasons. Khan sought to trade with the newly formed Khwarezmid Empire in Persia. He sent a group of several hundred merchants towards the town of Otrar. The Shah claimed that they were spies and sent them back to Khan. Khan, in an attempt to make peace, sent envoys, or representatives, to talk with The Shah. The Shah responded by having their chief envoy killed and the beards of the others burned, and he sent them back to Khan. Khan, who protected enemy envoys and ambassadors, no matter what message they brought, retaliated and, in the spring of 1219, sent his armies westward. Khan had 100,000 to 125,000 horsemen along with engineers and doctors, many of which were Turkish allies, for a grand total of 150,000 to 200,000 men. His strategy was to frighten the townspeople into surrendering without battle or casualties. Those who surrender without resistance were spared violence, those who tries to fight were slaughtered. By April of 1220, the people of Bukhara opened the city's gates to the Mongols and surrendered. Genghis Khan told them that they, the common people, were not at fault, but the high-ranking people among them had committed great sins that inspired God to send him and his army as punishment. To show their submission, some towns offered food and provisions to the Mongols, and in exchange, Khan's force guaranteed them protection. In cities where the Mongols were forced to conquer by force, Khan divided the survivors by profession and drafted the few who were literate and anyone who could speak various languages. Those who had been the city's most rich and powerful were killed instantly. Khan and his army pushed further and further into the empire. The caliph in Baghdad was hostile toward the sultan and supported Genghis Khan, sending him a
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