1. Amino acids a. Define the following: essential amino acid, nonessential amino acid and conditionally essential amino acid. b. Provide an example of a conditionally essential amino acid.
2. Describe the four structures (primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary) that differentiate one protein from another. (2 points)
3. a) What is denaturation and what causes it? b) Provide an example of a protein that has undergone that.
4. What is the fallacy behind taking oral enzymes or avoiding certain foods due to their enzyme content?
5. What is the fallacy behind taking amino acid supplements?
6. Describe the process of cellular protein synthesis (transcription and translation). Include the role of DNA, mRNA, tRNA, and ribosome.
7. Application question: How would protein synthesis be affected by intake that is very low in: a) glycine? b) tryptophan? c) energy?
8. a) What causes Sickle Cell anemia? b) Can it be prevented and why?
9. What are six functions of protein in the body?
10. What is edema? How is that related to protein status?
11. Nitrogen balance studies have been used to determine protein needs. Describe the different nitrogen balances and examples of who may be at those balances.
a. Equilibrium b. Negative c. Positive
12. a) What is deamination? b) How does the body handle the ammonia that results from that process? c) How does the body use the keto acids that result from that process?
13. a) What is the difference between high quality and low quality protein? b) How does mutual supplementation help to create a complete protein? c) What are two foods you can combine to get this complete protein via mutual supplementation?
14. Describe each of the protein energy malnutrition states: kwashiorkor