Anaerobic Digestion is broken down in 4 steps. These four steps are Hydrolysis, Acidogenesis, Acetogenesi and Methanogenesis. The first stage is hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is a process used to break down larger polymers in the presence of water, and often of an acidic catalyst. This is a very essential part of hydrolysis as biomass consists of very large organic molecules and for this process to work efficiently we must break the large particles down into smaller particles.
Digestive enzymes are hydrolytic enzymes. Their substances, or the molecules on which they act are organic food molecules which they breakdown by adding water to the molecular bonds, thus cleaving the bonds between the subunits or monomers. Digestive enzymes can function outside the body cells; their activity can be studied by test tubes (Marieb and Mitchell 2010). This experiment attempts to re-create the breakdown process that is normally done via digestion with Iodine as a vital component. It can be expected that once amylase reacts with the starch, maltose will then be broken down and less starch will be visible and more sugar will be apparent thus causing the solution mixed with iodine to become lighter and lighter.
Renal Function Tests Background: Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Renal tests can show how quickly body wastes are being removed and whether the kidneys are also leaking abnormal amounts of protein. In this practical serum creatinine, serum urea and urinary protein have been investigated. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, an important component of muscle. The production of creatinine depends on muscle mass, which varies very little.
Molecular Exclusion Chromatography Definition: Molecular Exclusion Chromatography also called Size Exclusion Chromatography brings 4 words to mind - hopefully. They are Chromatography, Separation (Exclusion), Molecule and Size. Putting them all together we can say that molecular exclusion chromatography (MEC) is a chromatographic method that involves the separation of molecules by size, i.e. larger molecules are separated from smaller ones. These molecules are in solution.
(Swann, 2008) The pancreas also makes amylase (alpha amylase) to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the body with energy. Hypothesis: Most enzymes are very specific for a certain substrate. The active site on the enzyme molecule forms a keyhole into which the substrate fits like a key. The substrate molecule is then broken up into many smaller pieces. “The higher the reaction temperature, the more kinetic
5. Describe how temperature and pH affect sucrase activity. Introduction Enzymes are usually protein molecules that act as biological catalysts. A catalyst greatly increases the speed of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy necessary to get the reaction started without itself being altered or consumed. On the surface of the enzyme is an active site that temporarily binds the reactants or substrates forming an enzyme-substrate complex.
Instead, the acids work to break down the food for easier digestion in the intestines. As the food is broken down to a thick paste-like substance known as chyme, it moves past the pyloric sphincter and into the small intestine. The first section of the small intestine, the duodenum, secretes digestive enzymes like amylase, maltase, sucrase, lactase, lipase and pepsin, to break down the chyme into even smaller parts that the body can then convert into usable energy. Some other organs that secrete chemicals to aid in the digestion process include the pancreas, liver, and gall bladder. The pancreas secretes trypsin and chymotripsin.
This protein precipitation in the presence of excess salt is also known as salting-out process. In this experiment, ammonium sulphate was used for the salt fractionation process. Ammonium sulphate was used especially for salt fractionation due to its high solubility and it is relatively inexpensive. Enzyme purification can also be carried out by following the same set of methodology as those for protein since enzyme is protein. However, some attention such as permanent loss of activity must be put into consideration due to denaturation under unfavourable conditions.
Enzymes are proteins that are used to speed up these reactions without being consumed by them. The activity of these enzymes can be altered by changing their environments, such as enzyme specificity (speed only a reaction that contains their substrate), increasing and decreasing temperature, concentration level, or adjusting the pH level. Catalase is a catalyst that digests potent hydrogen peroxide and converts it into H2O and O. It is due to this hydrogen peroxide digesting ability that we used catalase in this experiment. To record the role that environment plays in the reaction of an enzyme, we exposed the enzyme to various changes in temperature, concentration, and pH.
As the Sephadex forms a network with tiny holes, this prevents molecules that are too large from getting inside. The buffer also helps the protein molecules that are too large to enter the gel to bypass the gel altogether by flushing them out. It is for this reason that the protein with the largest molecules will be eliminated first and the protein with the smallest molecules should be eliminated last as they are able to pass right through the gel. Therefore the smallest molecules are able to deeply penetrate the gel and remain in the column for longer while, as the size of the molecules increases, the molecules are less able to do so and are eliminated quicker. Experimentation Throughout the experiment great care was taken when handling all substances.