If the PH goes over the optimum PH then the chemical nature of the amino acids can alter. This may cause the bonds that hold the tertiary structure together to break. The active site will be disrupted and the enzyme will be denatured. Substrate concentration - At low substrate concentrations many active sites will not be occupied, decreasing the rate of reaction. At high substrate concentrations most to all of the active sites will become occupied, increasing the rate of reaction.
1 mark AND Extreme pH denatures the enzyme, altering the shape of the active site and preventing the enzyme and substrate forming a complex, thereby decreasing the rate of the reactions. This is seen in a decrease in the amount of oxygen being produced. 1 mark c. This pH will need to be read from the graph 1 mark AND Optimum pH 1 mark Question 2 a. Any 2 of the following The volume the pH solution The volume of peroxide The surface area of the liver cube The same size test tube 1 mark b. The pH 1 mark c. Treatment group refers to all groups which are being manipulated or varied during an experiment.
I chose to do an experiment on ‘How temperature can affect the rate of enzyme activity in the liver?’ Temperature affects the “speeds of the molecules, the activation energy of the catalytic reaction and the thermal stability of the enzyme and substrate.” (2) At different levels of temperature the affects on the enzyme in the liver varies. The reason for this is because; “their molecules have low kinetic energy and collisions between them are less frequent.” (2) In other words at low temperatures, enzymes become ‘deactivated’. (2) Whereas on the other hand when the temperature is increased the activity that occurs in the
IB Internal Assessment: The Effect of pH on Polyphenoloxidase Enzyme Activity Research Question: What is the effect of different pH levels on the polyphenoloxidase enzyme activity? Background Information: The polyphenoloxidase enzyme is found in lychee and plenty of other produce as well. Measuring the absorbance rate of it in different pH levels aids in evaluating at which pH level does the enzyme work best. In other words, each enzyme has its own optimal pH at which it works its best in speeding up the reaction. Leading to the hypothesis, if the pH level is at 7.0, then the polyphenoloxidase enzyme will work better than if it was working at any other level of pH.
Enzymes are proteins that are used to speed up these reactions without being consumed by them. The activity of these enzymes can be altered by changing their environments, such as enzyme specificity (speed only a reaction that contains their substrate), increasing and decreasing temperature, concentration level, or adjusting the pH level. Catalase is a catalyst that digests potent hydrogen peroxide and converts it into H2O and O. It is due to this hydrogen peroxide digesting ability that we used catalase in this experiment. To record the role that environment plays in the reaction of an enzyme, we exposed the enzyme to various changes in temperature, concentration, and pH.
By understanding the kinetics of the process of the breakdown of drug, the amount of drug decomposes in a given time can be predicted. The effect of temperature on the stability of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) was being investigated in this experiment. The equation of the reaction of acetylsalicylic acid is: Acetylsalicylic acid Acetic acid + Salicylic acid The application considered here was the stability of aspirin in solution, and how the rate of decomposition varied with temperature. From the above equation, acetylsalicylic acid would decompose to acetic acid and salicylic acid under moist condition. To obtain the kinetic data on the stability of drug, a test known as ‘accelerated stability test’ was taken.
Evaporation and Intermolecular Attractions In this experiment, Temperature Probes are placed in various liquids. Evaporation occurs when the probe is removed from the liquid’s container. This evaporation is an endothermic process that results in a temperature decrease. The magnitude of a temperature decrease is, like viscosity and boiling temperature, related to the strength of intermolecular forces of attraction. In this experiment, you will study temperature changes caused by the evaporation of several liquids and relate the temperature changes to the strength of intermolecular forces of attraction.
This luciferin is a tetrapyrrole and differs to chlorophyll due to the type of metal ions present in its structure. Light emission from Dinoflagellates is pH-sensitive. This is mainly due to two factors. Due to the tertiary structure of the luciferase, a change in H+ ion concentration causes the luciferase to lose conformation, exposing its active site to the luciferin. Also, the luciferin molecule can be protected until the pH is suitable for it to bind to the protein.
Enzyme has an active site in a specific shape because of its tertiary structure. Enzyme works for binding with substance of a specific shape that fits in it and break down the substance. Enzymes denature due to various factors. The temperature, PH level, and the concentration of the substance influence enzyme activities. When these factors vary, enzymes may change in shape so it will not be able to bond to the specific substance anymore.
The age-dependent reduction in the capacity of degradation of oxidized proteins may be responsible for the build-up of damaged, dysfunctional molecules in the cell (Shringarpure and Davies 2002). It has been suggested that oxidative damage may be an important source of somatic mutations at the basis of the so-called “somatic mutation theory of aging”. This theory hypothesizes that the accumulation of genetic mutations in somatic cells represents the specific cause of senescence (Beckman and Ames