Digestive enzymes are hydrolytic enzymes. Their substances, or the molecules on which they act are organic food molecules which they breakdown by adding water to the molecular bonds, thus cleaving the bonds between the subunits or monomers. Digestive enzymes can function outside the body cells; their activity can be studied by test tubes (Marieb and Mitchell 2010). This experiment attempts to re-create the breakdown process that is normally done via digestion with Iodine as a vital component. It can be expected that once amylase reacts with the starch, maltose will then be broken down and less starch will be visible and more sugar will be apparent thus causing the solution mixed with iodine to become lighter and lighter.
Small molecules such as oxygen and carbon dioxide can diffuse in and out of the cells through the phospholipid bilayer; ions and glucose molecules enter and leave the cell via the channel proteins. Waste products such as nitrogenous compounds are carried to the kidneys and are excreted in the form of urine. Antidiuretic hormone, (ADH), is a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It is carried by the plasma to the kidney and stimulate the occurrence of water reabsorption. When the body is dehydrated, ADH is released, causing the collecting ducts to become more permeable.
Then the filtrate goes through the descending loop of Henle, which is permeable to water (water retained back), and then through the ascending loop of Henle, which is permeable to salt (salt is retained back). Then the filtrate goes to the distal tubule, which removes the wastes that were not initially filtered out of the Bowman’s capsule (hydrogen ions). From the distal tubule, it travels to the collecting duct (now called urine), which prepares the urine
This is called the shaking and venting procedure. This procedure allows the benzoic acid (benzoic is the solute) to establish an equilibrium between the two layers the organic layer and the aqueous layer. Benzoic acid, although it has dissolve in water, is not very soluble in water (it will only dissolve in water at elevated temperature). However, benzoic acid is more soluble in methylene chloride. That is why once you add the benzoic acid aqueous solution and the CH2Cl2 in the separatory funnel the benzoic acid moves from the aqueous layer into the methylene chloride organic layer.
nitrogen + hydrogen ammonia N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) The (g) indicates that the substance is a gas. The flow chart shows the main stages in the Haber process. The reaction is reversible, and some nitrogen and hydrogen remain mixed with the ammonia. The reaction mixture is cooled so that the ammonia liquefies and can be removed. The remaining nitrogen and hydrogen are recycled.
The paper discs were dipped in the samples given, one being a Yeast solution and the other a Catalase solution. After that, the discs were then immersed into the H2O2 solution. The oxygen produced from the enzyme reaction will form on the disc and cause it to float upwards to the surface of the H2O2 solution. Through these procedures we can investigate the effects of substrate concentration on the rate of reaction. We can manipulate the substrate concentration by varying the concentration of H2O2 taken during each trial of the experiment and measure the rate of reaction by measuring the time taken for the paper disc to float to the surface.
Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2) CO 2. It is highly soluble in water and therefore, a good way for the human body to expel excess nitrogen.Cinnamic acid has the formula C6H5CHCHCOOH; is a white crystallin acid slightly soluble in water. Materials: This lab consisted of two solid organic compounds Urea and Cinnamic acid. It also consisted of the Mel-temp, a pestle, a spatula, a balance weighed in mg, and tubes to put the organic compounds in. Procedures: First, we were each assigned a group number.
Urea is formed in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is carried to the kidneys for excretion. Nearly all kidney diseases cause inadequate excretion of urea, elevating BUN levels in the blood. Urea production will be increased during increased protein catabolism and increased protein digestion or decrease in glomerular filtration rate.Serum urea is measured by enzymatic method.In this method, urea is hydrolyzed enzymatically by urease to yield ammonia and carbon dioxide. The ammonia thus produced is converted to glutamate in a reaction catalyzed by L-glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH).The reaction monitored by measureing the rate of decrease in absorbace at 340nm, due to NADH is oxidized to NAD
5. The burette was then refilled with the NaOH and the meniscus was adjusted so that it sat at 0.0mL 6. The pipette was filled with the acetic acid and then drained once again to ensure the pipette wasn’t contaminated as otherwise the obtained results could have been incorrect. 7. The pipette was then filled with 25.0mL’s of acetic acid and then drained into a conical flask, to speed up the process both of the conical flasks were filled with 25.0mL of the acetic acid.
When CO2 is higher, pH is lower or acidic. When pH is acidic, hemoglobin is released to tissues that need oxygen. The relationship between oxygen afﬁnity and pH Compare the biochemical structure of hemoglobin to myoglobin The molecular difference between normal and sickle forms of hemoglobin The difference between normal and sickle red blood cells at the cellular level How the diseased cells are different from normal red blood cells in their capacity to carry oxygen A normal RBC is round and concave shaped that easily moves through the bloodstream. A sickle hemoglobin releasing oxygen sticks together, forms ﬁber formations that causes the sickle appearance. This decreases the capacity to carry oxygen and also by not moving through smaller circulation easily causes blockages.