a. strain buildup only b. location of foci c. magnitude of P-waves [pic] d. reoccurrence rates of earthquakes in an area and the rate of strain buildup 2. What are most earthquakes associated with? a. rift valleys b. mid-ocean ridges c. divergent plate boundaries [pic] d. plate boundaries 3. At what point in the graph would a rock be permanently deformed? [pic] a. at the start of the stress [pic] b. past
The lithosphere is divided into 7 major plates, including the North-American plate, and several minor plates. Between these plates are three different types of plate boundaries: constructive, destructive and conservative. Earthquakes can occur at all three when pressure builds up and is released in one sudden movement. The Earth’s plates move due to convection currents within the mantle in the Earth’s asthenosphere. As heat rises and cools it forces the plates in different directions; either sliding past one another, away or towards each other.
c. hot fragments thrown a short distance from the volcano Which of the following volcanoes is generally the largest? c. shield volcano At what depth do gas bubbles have the most effect on magma? c. at very shallow levels, such as within the volcano A lava solidifies into nonvesicular basalt instead of vesicular basalt because: b. the magma has a low content of gas Shield volcanoes commonly have a. fire fountains b. all of the choices c. lava flows d. fissure eruptions Composite volcanoes are so called because they: c. ) are composed of lava flows, pyroclastic material, and mudflows What types of rocks would be most common in a composite volcano? a. felsic and intermediate lava flows and
Mass movements can be caused by increases in shear stress, such as loading, lateral pressure, and transient forces. Alternatively, shear strength may be decreased by weathering, changes in pore water pressure, and organic material. This paper presents a review of different parameters of slope’s stability under blasting-induced vibration. Similarity of blasting vibrations to earthquake motions has produced a predictable transfer of analytical techniques from earthquake engineering. This transfer allows quantifying the influence of blasting waves on the rock mass of the slope and on soil slopes.
Plate Tectonics Press Release Assignment Geology/101 An earthquake is the shaking of the ground cause by an abrupt shift of rock along a fracture in the Earth, called a fault. An earthquake is caused by the breaking and shifting of rock beneath the Earth’s surface. Ground shaking from earthquakes can collapse buildings and bridges; disrupt gas, electric, and phone services; and sometimes trigger landslides, avalanches, flash floods, fires, and huge, destructive ocean waves (tsunamis) (www.fema.gov/hazard/earthquake/facts). So the question that everyone wants to know is why does the planet move when the plates move? The planet moves whenever the two plates get tangled together.
They can cause widespread destruction, such as the 1980 eruption of Mt St Helens. Lahars are a secondary effect of a volcanic eruption and are cement-like mudflows consisting of volcanic ash and water. They often occur in the days following an eruption when people are at their most vulnerable and with the capacity to travel up
Discuss the view that the impact of the earthquake hazards depends primarily on human factors? An earthquake, a sudden violent shaking of the ground can be caused by a number of things from seismic activity and resulting in varying impacts. The cause of an earthquake are a result of built up pressure under the earth’s crust, the pressure comes from the movement of the tectonic plates, they can occur on any plate boundaries. Although the majority of the earthquake hazards come from the physical factors, human factors can determine the severity of the event. The impacts created from an earthquake can come from the physical factors of the size, the location of the epicentre and the surrounding areas such as a ground type and the lithology of the rocks.
a. Volcano: include the type of lava, where magma is derived, and why this setting produces hazards b. Earthquake: magnitude and amount of displacement or offset 6. Describe the type of hazards in terms of cause, hazard definition, and location (example-tsunami inundation occurred within 1 mile of coastline in low lying areas). 7. Fatalities 8. Damage: 2-3 specific examples of structural damage (earthquakes); areas covered with volcanic debris (volcanic eruption); any other types of damage 9.
Earthquakes Sheila Fangmeier GEO101 – Earth Science Colorado State University – Global Campus Karen Stelly October 5, 2014 Earthquakes “An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves” (Earthquake, 2014). Seisometers measure earthquake magnitude and intensity based on two scales, the Richter and Mercalli. An earthquake’s magnitude can range from less than 2.0 to greater than 9.0 on the Richter scale and its intensity I to greater than VIII on Mercalli (Richter magnitude scale, 2014). The depth focus is important to how much damage can occur on the Earth’s surface. An earthquake’s depth can be considered shallow (less than 70km), intermediate (between 70km and 300km), or deep (300km to 700km) (Earthquake, 2014).