At last for conservations margins, the tension build up when plate are grinding past each other get stuck. Afterwards the plate will finally jerk past each other and sending out shock waves which is vibrations which is earthquakes. They both create lots of impact. For examples for the volcano eruption in Montserrat which is a LEDC, it cause 19
Discuss the view that the impact of earthquake hazards depends primarily on human factors  An earthquake is a tremor or shockwave in the earth’s crust that is caused by the sudden movement of the crust, resulting in the earth shaking. Most earthquakes are a consequence of tectonic plate movement by tension causing a sudden release of energy or rubbing. These normally occur at plate margins or along fault lines and can cause hazards which need to be prevented where possible. Earthquakes can therefore occur at all plate boundaries, destructive, constructive and conservative but the most damaging tend to happen at destructive margins where the earthquakes have a high magnitude due to the rubbing of the oceanic and continental crusts. A hazard is a natural event that has the potential to effect both life and property.
Explain why coastal California is considered a disaster hotspot? (15marks) A disaster hotspot is a country or area that is vulnerable/ disaster prone due the hazards that are; Geophysical, hydro- meteorological. A human factor that increases the risk is vulnerability which includes- population density, wealth and GDP (gross domestic products) which affects the impact of the natural hazard. California is considered a disaster hotspot as all of these factors contribute to an increased danger to human life, meaning it is susceptible to the following natural hazards: earthquake, tsunamis, volcanoes, droughts, wildfires, fog and smog, hurricanes and landslides. One hazard can often trigger others (e.g.
However despite this, as 95% of earthquakes occur on plate boundaries there must be some kind of link between the two and plate tectonic theory can explain this. The theory suggests that the earth’s crust is split into plates which are huge slabs of rock that move due to the convection currents in the mantle. Where two plates meet it causes friction along the plate margin and this creates stresses in the lithosphere and tension in the rock builds overtime. When the strength of the rocks under stress suddenly breaks, they fracture along cracks called faults, sending a series of seismic
Compare and contrast the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake with the 1811 New Madrid Earthquake. Include these elements: type of faulting and offset, epicenter, magnitude, damage, duration, date, and area affected. California’s earthquake on April 18, 1906 which lasted around 45-60 seconds, is thought to be one of the most momentous earthquakes in history. The degree in which earthquakes are monitored and studied is due to the sheer size of its horizontal displacement and rupture length. As a result of this earthquake theories such as, elastic-rebound has been one of the models used to portray the earthquake cycle.
Mass movements can be caused by increases in shear stress, such as loading, lateral pressure, and transient forces. Alternatively, shear strength may be decreased by weathering, changes in pore water pressure, and organic material. This paper presents a review of different parameters of slope’s stability under blasting-induced vibration. Similarity of blasting vibrations to earthquake motions has produced a predictable transfer of analytical techniques from earthquake engineering. This transfer allows quantifying the influence of blasting waves on the rock mass of the slope and on soil slopes.
Analyse the factors that cause differences in the hazards posed by volcanoes around the world A hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property or environment. The level of hazard posed by different volcanoes can vary greatly, from a weak eruption with minimal impact that causes little damage, to a violent and life threatening explosion. The difference in hazard that a volcano poses is determined by a series of different factors. Those combination and individual factors that determine the difference in hazard by a volcano will be explained within this essay. The first factor to be considered is the type of the magma.
However, viscous lavas are not always the most hazardous; an example of a low viscosity, destructive eruption is that of Mt. Nyiragongo in 2002. This is a strata-volcano found along the African Rift Valley at a constructive plate margin, however it did not erupt from the crater, it erupted from a 13km long fissure on the southern flank having devastating consequences. Lava flows alone destroyed a third of Goma including part of the airport runway, 14,000 homes were destroyed, 350,000 flee and 147 people were killed as 15 million cubic yards of lava cover the area. Sulphurous
To what extent can preparedness and planning mitigate the effects of volcanic hazards? (40 Marks) A volcanic hazard is any threat to life and infrastructure due to volcanic activity and related situations such as a landslide near the volcano. There are many different types of volcanic hazard and each can have different impacts on the economy, society and environment in a region. It is extremely important that disaster reduction measures, such as early warning systems and land use planning, are implemented to try to reduce these impacts. There are three main stages to consider when managing a volcano: before the eruption, during its critical period and evacuation.