According to Freud, even though the unconscious is hidden it still continues to sway our behaviours. It is important in counselling to have an understanding of the unconscious mind because it is the counsellor main goal to help their client become aware of their unconscious mind therefore helping them to understand and alter that problem behaviour. 5. List the three different aspects of personality identified by Freud. Briefly explain how they relate to each other.
The primary purpose of counselling is to help clients address psychological issues in their lives. Helping takes place in different relationships such as teacher-student, social worker-client, nurse or healthcare provider-patient etc. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COUNSELLING AND PSYCHOTHERAPY Counselling and psychotherapy are used to describe the similar processes. Both of them are used to overcome difficulties and working towards positive change in
The attachment theory is a psychodynamic theory. Psychodynamics is defined as the systematic study and theory of the psychological forces that underline human behavior, emphasizing the interplay between unconscious and conscious motivation. Bowlby broke down his theory into four characteristics of attachment. Safe haven which is when the child feels threatened or afraid, he or she can return to the caregiver for comfort and soothing. Secure base which is basically when the caregiver provides a secure and dependable base for the child to explore the world.
Individuals must develop the concept of self and the awareness of their experiences becoming the person’s self perception and the perception of the organismic self (the true-self). (htt//webspace.ship/edu/cgboer/rogers.htm accessed 28/2/2008) When there are incongruences between the ideal self and the self concept the more dysfunctions will occur. Most of our conditions of worth have been set in place by the conditions and experiences of our upbringing. especially by parents. Positive self regard is important and brought about by positive regard, a need for love and contact with another person where conditions of worth do not determine a persons self-esteem.
As Sedan (1999) suggested Technique can be used in many areas that are undertaken by social work. Like pre-sentence reports and assessments of children and families, Community care assessment’s. This method helps service user acknowledge emotional problems to help them understand themselves and why they feel powerless to change or respond to change in unpredictable ways. Also social worker needs to have knowledge of understanding differences between different approaches of
Behavioral-Cognitive Tools Beck Depression Inventory Cognitive interventions are a set of techniques and therapies practiced in counseling. Cognitive intervention is based largely on the social learning theory. Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck are largely the ones given credit to cognitive intervention. Cognitive interventions emphasize the role of learning and adaptation to the environment both in shaping and maintaining normal life functions. In essence, these approaches focus on behavior as important in its own right and often seek to change instances of disordered behavior via the application of clearly articulated basic principles of learning.
Research in attachment theory has recently challenged the way in which educators and caregivers support the learning and development of young children. In response to this, research programs and studies have started to adopt public policy to support the theory regarding the sensitivity needed to help children with poor attachments and assist them to better cope. There is an ongoing effort made by child care workers to become more educated on the necessary information and skills required to provide higher quality care (Rolfe 215-216). “It is how you are brought up (nurture) that governs the psychologically significant aspects of child development and the concept of maturation applies only to the biological. So, when an infant forms an attachment it is responding to the love and attention it has received, language comes from imitating the speech of others and cognitive development depends on the degree of stimulation in the environment and, more broadly, on the civilization within which the child is reared.
Intervention using the DIR/Floortime Model The DIR /Floortime model was developed by Dr. Stanley Greenspan, a child psychiatrist. The model uses interactions and relationships to teach children with developmental delays, such as those associated with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Greenspan’s Floortime method is based on the theory that autism symptoms are caused by problems with brain processing that affect a child's relationships and senses, among other things. With Floor Time, a child's actions are assumed to be purposeful, no matter what they do. It is the caregiver’s role to follow the child’s lead and help him develop interaction and communication skills.
TEACHER’S INFLUENCE ON CHILD OUTCOME AS EXPLORED BY ERICK H. ERICKSON’S STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Erikson was largely concerned with how personality and behaviour is influenced after birth - not before birth - and especially during childhood. His psychosocial theory is widely and highly regarded. As with any concept there are critics, but generally Erikson's theory is considered fundamentally significant. Erikson was a psychoanalyst and also a humanitarian. So his theory is useful far beyond psychoanalysis - it's useful for any application involving personal awareness and development - of oneself or others.
These clinicians began to develop a variety of theories about the nature and functioning of a family. Family therapy began with the concept of treating the entire family unit for psychological problems instead of just the individual. The earliest attempts at modifying basic practices begin with the idea that the best way to treat an individual was through the success of the patient-therapist relationship. Early therapists such as Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers believed that client’s family life does influence the client’s personality and therefore remains an integral part of the therapeutic process. The beliefs taught within this family unit remain one of the most influential forces that shape and control human behavior.