Assess the usefulness of functionalist approaches in explaining crime The functionalist approach to analysing deviance and the causes of crime looks at society as a whole. It explains crime that the source of criminal behaviour lies in the nature of society itself rather than in psychology or biology. Functionalists such as Durkheim see deviance as an inevitable and necessary part of society and too little is unhealthy. Some also consider crime to have positive aspects for society. In this essay we will assess the usefulness of these functionalist theories, and look at how it helps us explain crime.
Comparing Functionalism and Marxism on Crime and Deviance This assignment will compare and contrast Functionalism and Marxism on crime and deviance. The functionalist view of crime is that it is a threat to social order. Someone who commits a crime or a deviant act has gone against the norms and values of society. Functionalist’s believe in the nurture side of the nature versus nurture debate. Some people are socialised into crime, some functionalists, however such as Emile Durkheim see crime as being normal and an integral part of all healthy societies.
“What Justice Means to Me” This paper will describe what justice means to me. This paper will also show how I strive to see that my definition of justice is served in my occupation. Justice is generally understood to mean what is fair, right, deserved, and appropriate (MCADSV, 2009). Justice is usually accomplished when the person charged of the crime is behind bars and the victim of the crime can feel that justice had been done. Justice is the concept of moral rightness based on rationality, natural law, fairness, law, equity, and ethics (Dictionary.com, 2009).
Outline and evaluate functionalist explanations of crime and deviance Crime and deviance can be defined as behaviour which breaks the law or goes against society's norms and values. Downes and Rock defined deviance as behavior which may be considered as banned or controlled behavior which is likely to attract disapproval or punishment. Crime is harder to define, however Pease (2002) defined crime and deviance as an action that is deemed so disturbing by citizens or disruptive to society that state intervention is justified. The macro perspective of Functionalism sees society working like the human body, this is described through the organic analogy. The agents of socialization work together to form equilibrium within society.
This theory allows an individual to make a decision that may increase suffering, as long as the consequences are justified (Rawls, 1999). It praises the law over personal morals of the individual. On the contrary, deontological ethics has a classification of a person’s devotion to moral duty. According to Rawls (1999), a deontologist does what they say they will do and mean what they
Module 1 Homework Assignment CRJ100: Introduction to Justice Administration Timothy Sox Brian Danigole May 29 2012 1. What is an institution of social control? Explain how criminal justice is an institution of social control. Institution of social control: an organization that persuades people through subtle and not-so-subtle means to abide by the dominant values of society. Criminal justice is part of the institution of social control, because they persuade you to follow social values.
Concept of Deterrence Erin Hayter PBS 300 – Introduction to Crime and Deviance Colorado State University – Global Campus Patricia Goforth January 26, 2014 The Concept of Deterrence The concept of deterrence falls under the “Classical Theory” of criminology theories. Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794), along with Jeremy Bentham (1748-1821), were both advocates of the classical theory in viewing an individual acting as a result of “free will” (Hagen, 2013). Beccaria believed that criminal decisions were based on a few simple factors, being that humans have free will; humans are rational creatures and able to weigh prospective outcomes of their actions, seeing which may benefit or detract from the quality of their lives; human decisions are based on the simplest views of man; finally that an organized system of laws and punishment which catered to these human traits is necessary to help keep society compliant (Winfree & Abadinsky, 2003). The main purpose is to maximize pleasure while minimizing pain. These classical ideas laid the foundation for many justice systems, including the United States.
Differential association “Sutherland introduced the concept of differential association, which he developed into a theory to explain the process by which an individual engages in criminal behaviour” (http://www.oup.com/ us/pdf/reid/Reid_ Chapter6.pdf) which is the first of Akers key elements is differential association. This refers to ones exposure to, and interactions with, others. The impact of this exposure may vary according to the rate of recurrence, how long the exposure and the intensity of this exposure, to others. Definitions The second of Akers key elements is definitions. This element refers to attitudes or level of approval individuals hold regarding morals and laws in general as well as specific deviant behaviours.
Because the overall objective of Restorative justice is to involve all stakeholders, it requires the assumption that crimes or violations are committed against real individuals, rather than against the state. It serves as an advocate’s restitution to the victim by the offender rather than retribution by the state against the offender. Instead of continuing and escalating the cycle of violence, it tries to restore relationships and stop the violence. Victims’ respond to this as a need because it helps them feel what they want to feel most and that’s safe. Some of the most important components a victim needs and desires are to feel safe, to have support and most importantly to have a voice.
The differential association theory argued that crime was the result of environmental influences on people and not from biological and psychological abnormalities. Sutherland’s general theory was that criminal behaviour is learnt in the social environment. He said that the main difference between law abiding behaviour and criminal behaviour is in what is learnt rather than how it is learnt. (Joubert, Joubert & Ovens, 2012:105). DEFINITION Differential association is a concept that was developed by E. H. Sutherland.