The functionalist would argue that those who transgress are usually dealt with by the law and that order is restored. The conflict theorist would argue that the law enforcement system perpetuates the inequalities and would give the example of how many white-collar crimes go unpunished. Read more: http://www.ehow.com/how_8586125_compare-contrast-functionalist-conflict-theories.html#ixzz2iJlpn5zx Contrast the functionalist and conflict theories of crime. The functionalist would argue that those who transgress are usually dealt with by the law and that order is restored. The conflict theorist would argue that the law enforcement system perpetuates the inequalities and would give the example of how many white-collar crimes go unpunished.
Functionalist define crime and deviance as functional and necessary to society as a whole, with just the right amount of crime to avoid anomie; normlessness. Durkheim (cited in Haralambos and Holborn: 179) suggests that “societies need both crime and punishment to highlight society’s norms and define moral boundaries” (Haralambos and Holborn 2009). Functionalism strive for what is best for society so as not to strain the current system in place. If too much or too little change was to occur, society would be in a state of anomie, were common values are no longer understood and accepted. Merton (1968) in the study of his ‘American Dream’ theory
Criminal law consists of bodies of regulations and rules that will specify and define the punishments for the wrong committed against society or the state. Criminal laws are enforced on state, federal, and local levels. Criminal laws are in place to maintain some type of standard of conduct more acceptable in society, and to safeguard society from criminals. The purpose of criminal laws is to set a no tolerance standard for criminal behavior, also meaning no crime committed will go unpunished thus an attempt to keep the community crime free and safe. When
Although theories like functionalism and Marxism focus on the causes of crime, realists also look at the ways we can prevent crime from happening. Realists trust official statistics and both left and right realists have come up with a variety of solutions to fight crime. Right realists think that situational crime prevention or SCP. They reason that intervening in the immediate situation where crime is taking place is the one of the best things to be done. Using materials like anti-climb paint or neighbourhood watch schemes they make the target harder to achieve, or more risky.
Historically there are three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: A) psychological models; B) sociological models; and C) biological models. All infer different methods of control. It actually difficult to completely separate the three categories completely as it is generally accepted that all three of the factors play a role in the expression of behavior. Moreover, psychological science consists of several disciplines including biological psychology and social psychology, so psychological principles could be applied across all three domains. However, there are some general principles associated with each of the above three paradigms that would be associated with some specific crime control policies.
All these determinates are examples of how social and economic factors influence the general crime rates. Once a person weighs the benefits and the possible consequences of a potential criminal act, they are capable to make their choice. Deterrence is what helps make the consequences outweigh the benefits of a probable crime. General deterrence offers swift and certainty of punishment, specific deterrence makes sure that criminals that are punished severely enough they do not repeat. These two deterrence methods offer somewhat of a solution to the negative approach of the choice theory; if the individual is able to be deterred they will be able to make a more rational
Conditions of an officer’s reaction to certain responds would change (Grant & Terry, 2008). With only reactive patrols we would not have officers trying to stop crimes before they happened. Likewise, with only proactive patrols we would have all of our officers positioned in targeted hot spots or crime problem areas and would not have the quick response like what reactive patrols can serve (Grant & Terry, 2008). In order for our policing agencies to succeed in every possible way, both preventative measures for reducing crime and having the ability to send quick response units, they have to incorporate both reactive and proactive patrols. Both types of patrols serve a unique purpose and can be reduced
Theories on Crime Comparison: Psychological Positivism At the end of the 19th, and into the early 20th century a new school of thought emerged in regard to behavior, called positivism. This theoretical principle maintained that a person’s behaviors, although also the product of free will, were primarily the result of a person’s biological, psychological, and social traits. Modern criminologists continue to use components of the positivist theoretical approach in determining criminal behavior; however, many experts are of the opinion that various aspects of this school of thought are obsolete. This view originates from the knowledge that medical science, psychological research, and sociological studies are far more advanced than they were 100 years ago. Nevertheless, criminologists continue to find useful aspects of old studies even from discredited psychological theories, like psychoanalysis (Williams & McShane, 2009).
The agents of socialization work together to form equilibrium within society. The consensus theory places emphasis on the importance of the nuclear family as within this 'stable' environment can an individual be effectively socialized. However the theory has been criticized for being too deterministic and ignorant of individual circumstance. The Functionalist sociologist Durkheim presents the argument that crime and deviance is normal, natural and functional for society. Crime provides jobs, acts as a deterrent for conforming citizens and puts behavior into perspective.
Asses the roll of crime prevention in deterring criminal behaviour. No matter what culture is examined, crime is evident in all of them, it is for this reason that the governing body attempt to implement crime prevention in order to make society safer place, as well as cutting the cost needed to prosecute criminals. The two main categories of crime prevention are situational and social crime prevention. These two categories break down into many sub-categories, most notably CCTV as well as legal education . The first, and most apparent category of crime prevention is situational crime prevention.