Court System in the United States

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Court System in the United States Survey of Justice and Security AJS/502 Survey of Justice and Security Ariel Clavijo University of Phoenix Court System in the United States There are two types of courts function in the American Criminal Justice System: * State Courts * Federal courts. this two types of court system result from the agreement among the nation’s founders and, judicial autonomy. The United States developed a federation of semi-independent states. State court system is divided in many local and specialized courts: * Traffic courts * Magistrate’s courts * Municipal courts * Recorder’s courts * Probate courts * Courts’ held by justice of the peace. At the early of the twentieth century, both the American Bar Association and the American Judicature Society tried to simplify the state courts structures. There are different versions about the courts reform and one of them suggests a uniform model for all states with the following characteristics: * A centralized court structure with a hierarchy of trial and appellate courts. * Consolidation of several lower level courts with different jurisdictions. * Centralized state courts authority responsible for budgeting, financing and managing the different courts in the states. Today the reformism is still active and many states are still working with certain progress, Schmalleger (2011). State trial. - Criminal cases begin here. Trial court conduct activities like arraignments, set bail, take pleas and conduct trials. In both cases when the defendant pleads guilty or in case is found guilty, the trial court imposes sentence. Trial courts of limited or special jurisdiction are called lower courts. Lower courts hear only less serious criminal cases specials types cases( Traffic violations, small claims or family problems), Schmalleger (2011). Courts of

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