Discuss the use of the cognitive interview in obtaining evidence from eyewitnesses. (12 marks) A cognitive interview is a police technique made for interviewing witnesses of crimes. The cognitive interview encourages them to recreate the scenario of what originally happened to increase the accessibility of stored information; this makes it more likely for the witness to remember more accurate details of the event. Cognitive interviews are important to improve the effectiveness of questioning witnesses and to be able to apply psychological findings to these real life situations. The cognitive interview had been developed by Fisher and Geiselman in 1992.
Remembering some aspects of experience leads, by association, to other, but the sequence cannot be predicted and may seem confused to a listener. Cognitive interviewing is designed to facilitate accurate recall through a set of instructions. There are four basic principles, according to Fisher et al. (1989). Event-interviewing similarity Memory of an event such as a crime is enhanced when the psychological environment at the interview is similar to the environment at the original event.
1. What are your thoughts regarding the reliability of eyewitness testimony? I believe reliability of eyewitness testimony cannot be accurate because people tend to update and revise their memories of such events and are aware there doing so and retrieve gained information after the actual events, whether true or false. 2. When you think about the importance of eyewitness testimony in courts, can you think of ways to increase eyewitness accuracy?
In the body of a Rogerian argument, the writer gives an objective statement of her or his position, again trying to avoid loaded and attacking language and trying not to imply that this position is somehow better then audience’s position. Writer explains the contexts in which his or her position is valid and explores how they are different from the audience’s. the gun registration writer might note that gun collections are frequently target for thieves, and point out that registration might help the owners retrieve such stolen property before it is used to commit a crime. To conclude, the writer finally presents the thesis, usually phrased in such a way that shows the audience that the writer has made some concessions toward the audience’s positions. For instance, the gun registration writer might believe that this law should only apply to new sales of handguns, not to guns the audience already owns.
Discuss Research into the Cognitive Interview The cognitive interview is a police technique for interviewing witnesses to a crime, which encourages them to recreate the original context in order to increase the accessibility of stored information. Because our memory is made up of associations rather than discrete events, memories are accessed using multiple retrieval strategies and they are; 1) report everything; 2) recreate the context; 3) recall the event in a different order; and 4) recall the event from other perspectives. The cognitive interview supports evidence such as Godden and Baddely showed the importance of the context. A meta-analysis of 53 studies showed an increase of 34% in the amount of correct information generated in the cognitive interview compared with the standard interview but it is difficult to compare meta-analysis because it may include studies that used different techniques, so it was a biased sample. But the cognitive interview also recalls more inaccurate information than the standard interview.
This gives the interviewer invaluable data on the causes and consequences of domestic violence, allowing them to begin to construct trends after several interviews. The unstructured nature of these interviews also allows the interviewer to build a relationship with the interviewee, a rapport which could not be fostered in a structured setting. This rapport allows the interviewer invaluable first hand data from abusers and victims, which they may be unlikely to share in the absence of such a relationship. However, reliability is where unstructured interviews lack, particularly due to the absence of sampling frames, data collected is very difficult to compare due to the unique nature of each interview, and official records are incomplete and information on victims is not available to researchers. Victims of domestic violence are also quite unlikely to report said violence, which calls
Cognitive interview as an alternative method of interviewing witnesses has been shown to increase accuracy of memory, although in some cases it has been shown to make little difference. The stages of cognitive interview are; report everything, changed perspective, reverse order and context reinstatement, which research has shown improves recall. An issue with most of the research is that it is conducted in laboratory conditions and some of it poses ethical issues. One piece of research into the cognitive interview is from Geiselman (1988). He showed students videos of violent crimes and interviewed them 48 hours later either using a standard police interview or the cognitive interview.
Police Brutality In recent years, police actions, particularly police abuse, has come into view of a wide, public and critical eye. While citizens worry about protecting themselves from criminals, it has now been shown that they must also keep a watchful eye on those who are supposed to protect and serve. This paper will discuss the types of police abuse prevalent today, including the use of firearms and receipt of private information. I will also discuss what and how citizens' rights are taken advantage of by police. For these problems, solutions will be discussed, focusing on political reform, education, and citizen review boards.
Topic: Wrongful Convictions Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience to Improve the US Justice system Thesis Statement: There are more and more false persecutions each day and easily these persecutions can be avoided. I. INTRODUCTION A. Attention material/Credibility Material: How would you feel if you heard someone was accused of a crime that he or she did not commit? They were later convicted and sent to jail.
When the police conduct a show-up, they search the area of the crime scene looking for a person who fits the description of the perpetrator. If they find someone matching the description they bring that person to the eye witness, alone, and ask the witness if the suspect is the perpetrator. If a show-up is used then it is much more likely that an innocent person may be picked and accused of the crime. The problem with this is that the eye witness is being subjected to the influence of the police. The witness may think that the suspect looks guiltier since the police have already picked him or her out (Smith, Bertrand, Lindsay, Kalmet, Grossman, & Provenzano, 2014).