When confidentiality is maintained, only qualified personnel have access to the results of the test, however this principle can also be void if the patient poses harm to him/herself or others. This principle goes hand in hand with knowledge of results principle, which ensures that the patient has a right to a full disclosure of the testing results. (Hogan, 2007) In order to ensure valid results, psychologist must make sure that the person taking the test is competent. By ensuring this, norms, reliability, validity and construction are developed and the test is utilized in a responsible manner. Competency also allows for test takers to feel comfortable and capable, resulting in a better diagnosis and treatment.
Deffenbacher et al did a meta analysis from 21 studies they looked at 18 studies and found that higher anxiety has a negative impact on recall for the eyewitness. A meta analysis is good because it ensures that all the faults in the experiments cancel each other out and the fact that it was from different studies suggests there is a high validity. However by saying this, what type the experiments were are not known. For example if they were predominantly lab experiments then this will lack ecological validity and factors like demand characteristics, experimenter bias and the halo effect may have come into effect. Further support comes from Kohler et al (2002) who gave particpants 50 words and measured the galvine skin resistance (GSR) for the levels of stress.
The criminal justice process is a process is a continuum of steps that function as a whole to move a criminal from arrest to his/her punishment (if they are found guilty). The criminal justice process begins with the criminal committing a criminal act, such as holding up a liquor store. The next step in the process is a criminal investigation, in this case, a criminal investigation might include watching the footage from the liquor store's surveillance cameras to identify a suspect. From there, the next step in the criminal justice process is arrest. In my example, this would include tracking down the suspect identified by the surveillance footage and apprehending the suspect.
Social cognition refers to the way our thoughts are influenced by the people we mix with, but also look at an individual's cognitions. In the context of criminality, the social context is the criminal act, therefore it is helpful to try and find out what a criminal is thinking when they commit a crime so that these cognitions can be altered. What the criminal is thinking may differ depending on whether the crime is committed individually (intrapersonal) or within a group (interpersonal). Gudjonsson and Bownes looked at the relationship between the type of offence an individual committed and the attributions offenders made about their criminal acts. Results were also cross-validated on an English sample.
From this type of profiling an offender can be categorized as organized nonsocial offenders and disorganized asocial offenders. The killing from theses two types of offenders would produce two different crime scenes, one of complete chaos and plenty of evidence all over and another with little evidence and more controlled. A major benefit from using this type of profiling is that it let investigators know what kind of offender they will be dealing with so they know how to proceed with the case and interrogate them. A limitation from this type of profiling can be that too much attention is paid to the physical evidence and not on the nonphysical (Holmes & Holmes,
1. The role of criminological research in theory building is that the construction of theories allows for a better understanding of criminal behavior and helps develop strategies to address the problem of crime. 2. Theories can help us understand criminal behavior or design strategies because theories help us to understand patters and predict or understand a person’s behavior. 3.
An example of replication is law enforcement replicating a crime to see how the crime was committed. Verification is confirming or validating something. A lie detector test verifies whether someone is telling the truth or not. Theory is in criminal justice represents an attempt to develop plausible explanations of reality, which in this case are crime and the criminal justice system. In addition to one of the most intriguing aspects is the Hypothesis of the Criminal Justice system when referring to a crime being committed.
Criminological Theories of Deviance Kristie Barela American Intercontinental University Criminological Theories of Deviance What are criminological theories? It is understood that criminology is the study of crime, but criminological theories provide us with an explanation of criminal behavior. These theories help one to understand why people commit crime. Social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory are just a few examples of sociological theories of crime that will be examined within this paper. Along with a brief description of the criminological theories, an attempt to show how they differ from one another and discussion of one strength and one weakness unique to each theory will be made.
Offender profiling is the collection of empirical data in order to compile a picture of the characteristics of those involved (Howitt 2002). Offender profiles aim to narrow down the range of possible suspects rather than solve the actual crime (Dwyer 2001). Holmes suggests that profiling is most useful when the crime scene reflects psychopathology e.g. sadistic assaults, and 90% of profiling attempts involve murder or rape. Holmes and Holmes 1996 suggested that there are three goals to offender profiling; social and psychological assessments of the offender, psychological evaluation of their belongings, and interviewing suggestions and strategies.
This paper will discuss that topic along with if it is a conflict between the code of ethics and how law enforcement is conducted. This paper will also discuss the role physical behavior and nonverbal communication play in detecting deception. According to Skolnick and Leo (1993) the typology of interrogatory deception discusses interview versus interrogation, Miranda warning, misrepresentation of the nature or seriousness of the offense, role playing, misrepresentation of the moral seriousness of the offense, the use of promises, the misrepresentation of identity, and fabricated evidence. Police rely on deception when it comes to interrogation and at times it is the only way to find the truth. The police used severe beating and torture for years to obtain a confession out of a suspect and this type of activity was known as the “third degree” but now that times have changed mainly because of the Miranda warning, what is used most is deception.