This states that a chronically homeless person is one who is on the streets or in a shelter (The Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress, 2007). This often results in the prevention of many homeless families receiving assistance therefore affecting the increase of the homeless population. Two of the main causes of family homelessness are poverty and lack of affordable housing. In fact, recently, children represent a disproportionate share of the poor in the United States; they are 25 percent of the total population, but 35 percent of the poor population. In 2008, 15.45 million children, or 20.7%, were poor (Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States, 2009).
People living in the most deprived areas have much greater mortality rates and lower life expectancy (Jones and Douglas 2012). In terms of health inequalities the most important factor is the wider “upstream” social determinants of ill health. (Orton et al 2011). The factors deemed social determinants of ill health include adverse living environments, poor education, stress, social exclusion. (Marmot et al 2008 cited in Joyce and Bambra 2010).
These tools are commonly referred to as optimization techniques. Optimization techniques “can be used, for example, to determine (holding quality and outcomes constant) which types of health manpower, given their relative productivity and wages, are least costly for producing a given medical service, or similarly, whether one combination of institutional settings is less costly that another for treating particular types of patients” (Feldstein, 2012. p. 15). Similarly, marginal analysis can be utilized determine the cost-effectiveness of allocating resources in an effort to achieve a specific goal. A basic knowledge of marginal analysis is also important when it comes to understanding how consumers (or patients) select various goods or services, and allows healthcare organizations to accurately predict changes in those services or goods. When a patient purchases good or services they receive a benefit, or utility; subsequent purchases provides the patient with more benefits, but “additional benefits decline as more units are purchased” (Feldstein, 2012. p. 17).
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the determinants of health include: the social and economic environment, the physical environment, and the person’s individual characteristics and behaviors. These determinants—or things that make people healthy or not—include the above factors, and many others: • Income and social status - higher income and social status are linked to better health. The greater the gap between the richest and poorest people, the greater the differences in health. • Education – low education levels are linked with poor health, more stress and lower self-confidence. • Physical environment – safe water and clean air, healthy workplaces, safe houses, communities and roads all contribute to good health.
The same factors that determine health are also responsible for determining ill-health. Each factor may have a positive or negative effect on health Within UK concern about health inequalities due to health being affected by the determinants has a long history. Mortality rates Unskilled/lowest social class= Highest mortality rates, mental health problems, alcohol and drug dependency Professional/highest social class=lowest rates of mortality Lord Darzi in 2007, “the poorest communities experience the worst health….a
(Burt VL, Whelton P, Roccella EJ, et al, 1995) In this study I found that women have higher odds of reporting hypertension than do men, regardless of their race/ethnicity. Women are more likely to access the medical system and live longer than men. Thus, it is possible that women are more likely to be aware of their hypertension status because of their contacts with physicians. Evidence suggests that the prevalence of hypertension decreases as education increases among non-Hispanic Blacks and Whites, but not among Mexican Americans. (Borrell LN, 2006) Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks regardless of their education were more likely to report hypertension, with those with a college degree or more having the greater odds.
For example, 14,000 kids have been positively affected by the Michigan Earned Income tax credit, but because it has been cut by 14%, low-income youth are unable to receive the benefits (kidscount). Youth in families that are receiving unemployment are affected because unemployment was cut from 26 weeks to 20 weeks and cash assistance has become more difficult to receive (kidscount). Poverty affects the youth in many ways, such as their family life and education. Many children are neglected in cases of low-income families. 32,500 children have been neglected in 2010, and in Ingham County 42 percent of children have been abused or neglected (milhs.org).
One of the key indicators to inequalities is poor income. (Germov, 2009, p. 87). Working class children are more likely to die in their first year of life and adults more likely to have prolonged illness due to lack of income to pay for medical attention and the harsh living environment. The risk of divorce is higher for the working class also a very low rate of working glass people further their education. Ethnicity and Gender come into this as ethnic people are also considered working class and transgender, gays etc.
Do Children Living below the Poverty Level have adequate Health Insurance? Abstract This paper goes over children living in poverty and whether they have access to adequate health insurance. The paper compiles statistics on uninsured children; researches the Medicaid laws that congress has passed and covers the effects that lack of health insurance has on children. Over 40 million people are living below the poverty line, and many children are living without any health coverage. The unemployment level in our country has nearly doubled since 2007, and children can be some of the hardest hit it our economy.
The cause of death in children is somewhat different in different age groups. These variations reflect the underlining package of conditions and risk factors as well as the availability of effective health care. For example the leading causes of death in the under five group are pneumonia, prematurity, birth asphyxia, diarrhea and malnutrition. The pattern in Basrah seems not different but two features are clearly demonstrated in this study in Basrah. The first is that perinatal conditions and infection are major killers.