Foster care is meant to be a temporary arrangement, though children stay in care for an average of two years, and there are currently over five hundred thousand children in care. “Roughly sixty percent of foster children return home; fifteen percent are adopted; and the remainder “age out” of foster care(“Breaking”).” Three-quarters of these children live with substitute families, one-third of which are headed by relatives of the children. Further, foster care policy directly targets children who appear to be at high risk of poor life outcomes. Abused children are three times more likely to die in childhood, with fourteen hundred child deaths each year directly attributed to child abuse. One doctor notes, “Those placed in foster care are far more likely than are other children to commit crimes, drop out of school, join welfare, experience substance abuse problems, or enter the homeless population(“National”).” In particular, nearly 20 percent of young prison inmates and 28 percent of homeless individuals spent some time in foster care as a youth.
Michael Rutter and the case study of Romanian orphans in 1998 Aim: Rutter et al wanted to find if it was separation from the mother or the severe circumstances in Romania that was responsible for any negative effects Procedure: 111 Romanian children were assessed on a variety of measures of physical and intellectual ability when they arrived to Britain. Most of them had been in the orphanages from shortly after they were born. The children’s IQ was tested when they came in the UK and the average score for the Romanian orphans was 63.For those over 6 months the average was 45.Physical development was also poor,51% of them being in the bottom of 3% of the population for weight. They were also shorter in height than was normal for their age and had smaller head circumferences. The Romanian children were tested again at the age of 4 and compared to a control group of 52 British-adopted children who were 4 as well, who didn’t show any of the negative effects suffered by the Romanians.
The Office of National Statistics, interviewed parents, teachers, and children themselves, and found that many suffer from emotional problems such as depression, anxiety and aggression. Statistics show that over a 3 year period, children whose parents were split up were 4.53 more likely to develop emotional problems than those whose parents were still in one household, and were 2.87 times more likely to demonstrate the start of behavioral disorders. Edmondson, Brad/Waldrop, Judith “Single Parents Statistics” American Demographics, Dec93, Vol. 15 Issue 12, p36, 2p, 2 Charts, 1 Graph. Per the US Census Bureau single parents consist of “other families” which are households of unmarried couples.
Moreover, they don’t value themselves as having been let down and thus, do not develop a positive internal working model for how relationships work and function. In Bowlby’s ’44 Juvenile Thieves Study’ investigated whether problems later in life can be explained in terms of maternal deprivation. He collected data through interviews of 44 emotionally disturbed thieves and a control group of 44 emotionally disturbed teenagers (with no record of theft) and asked what their upbringing was like, particularly focusing on any separation from their mother during their first 5 years of age. He found that 39% of the focus group had been separated from their mothers for 6 months or more before the age of 5 and Bowlby claimed this would have disrupted the children’s ability to form attachment bonds and thus maternal deprivation can lead to problems with future relationships as the children struggle to trust people after being let down by their primary caregiver and are more independent and so possibly prefer to be alone. A practical application for Bowlby’s findings is that there should be no institutional care for children and if possible
For every suicide among young people, there are at least 100 suicide attempts. Over 14 percent of high school students have considered suicide, and almost 7 percent have attempted it. Bully victims are between 2 to 9 times more likely to consider suicide than non-victims, according to studies by Yale University A study in Britain found that at least half of suicides among young people are related to bullying 10 to 14 year old girls may be at even higher risk for suicide, according to the study above According to statistics reported by ABC News, nearly 30 percent of students are either bullies or victims of bullying, and 160,000 kids stay home from school every day because of fear of bullying This is one reason, one out of many on why you should not bully. These people are depressed and from personal experience you are always down and you do not care about anything. Some people don’t care about other people’s feelings.
According to Cornerstone Consulting group (2001): Palm Beach County (PBC) does not identify the age of the mother in the abortion data it collects, pregnancy rates are not computed for the county. More babies are born to white teens (51 percent) than to teens of other racial and ethnic groups (49 percent); however, only 37
For young people leaving care, such ‘difficulties’ are highlighted in research which suggests in 2006, only 12% of children in care achieved 5 A* to C grades at GCSE, compared to 59% of all children, and 38% leave care prior to the age of 18. Whilst 30 % of care leavers aged 19 were not in education, employment or training (NEET), (DfES, 2007). Stein (2006:273) summarises these findings, arguing that young care leavers are disproportionately represented in every vulnerable group, and are more likely to experience homelessness or prison; poorer health outcomes, and early parenthood. As Dixon (2008:2007) suggests, the above factors ‘can have a lasting impact on future progress’, which in turn may result in young people leaving care being vulnerable to social exclusion, unless they receive considerable support during their time in care, and once they have left. The Government has subsequently attempted to address the above issues by creating a number of policies and guidance focussing on improving the quality of care young people receive whilst in care and upon leaving, in an attempt to provide the best start to life and reducing the numbers of those who are vulnerable to be socially excluded.
People also think that it could lead to an insecure attachment and lead to psychological effects on the child later in life. There are many studies which argue both sides to the effects of day care and I am now going to look at some closer. Clarke-Stewart studied 500 children and found that children in care for up to 30 hours per week were no more distressed than other children who had attended much lower hours of day care when separated from parents in the strange situation. This shows that children can form strong attachments with mothers even if they are in their 24/7 care, although the experiment could direction the other way as the experiment was only done in one area opposed to several so it lacks in population validity. Roggman et al (1994) compared infants who had attended day care in the first year with those who had remained at home and they found no difference in attachment with mothers.
Between 1993 and 2001, juvenile arrests for murder declined, with the number of arrests in 2001 (1,400) about one-third that in 1993” (). There were also declines in arrest rates for juveniles who committed crimes such as burglary which declined 66% between 1980 and 2001, and aggravated assault which declined in the youngest juveniles by 9% and the oldest juveniles at 38% (). In 2001, the arrest rate for juveniles for property related offenses reached the lowest percentage since the 1960’s (). Increase in Drug Offense and Simple Assault However, with the decrease in violent crime arrests among juveniles, the arrest rate for drug offenses and simple assaults increased. Implications for Juvenile Females and Minorities Assessment of Tracking Juvenile Arrest References
Edward Charles Harrison Project #4/ Final Draft English 111/ Filkins 12/14/2011 Word Count: 1166 The “peculiar” Child In 1896, Granville Stanley Hall, supervised a study called “Of Peculiar and Exceptional Children” which described a series of only-child oddballs as permanent misfits. For decades, academics and advice columnists alike disseminated their conclusion that an only child could not be expected to go through life with the same capacity of adjustment that children with siblings possessed. Hall claimed, “Being an only child is a disease in itself.” (Sandler 2) Thus the stereotype was born. Despite growing trends toward having just one child and the large body of evidence revealing the strengths of the only child, negative stereotypes about only children persist (Mancillas 268). Raising an only child has its opponents and its supporters, but a balanced level of parental involvement can lead to a well behaved, emotional strong child, that achieve higher scores in intelligence and achievement motivation compared to children from larger families.