The medical term for High Blood Pressure is Hypertension. In this reading you will learn the types of Blood Pressure, the causes of High Blood Pressure and the cure for High blood Pressure. There are two types of Blood Pressures an individual has. Systolic blood pressure and Diastolic blood pressure. Systolic pressure is the force of blood in the arteries as the heart beats.
BLOOD DOPING Blood doping is an illicit method of improving athletic performance by artificially boosting the blood's ability to bring more oxygen to muscles. In many cases, blood doping increases the amount of hemoglobin in the bloodstream. Hemoglobin is an oxygen-carrying protein in the blood. So increasing hemoglobin allows higher amounts of oxygen to reach and fuel an athlete's muscles. This can improve stamina and performance, particularly in long-distance events, such as running and cycling.
The SAN located in the right atrium spreads a wave of electrical excitation across the Bachmann’s bundle to the walls of the atria causing it to contract, inducing atrial systole. The pressure in both atria increases greatly causing the tricuspid valves in the right atrium and bicuspid valves in the left atrium to open. Although the majority of the blood enters the ventricles during atrial diastole, the contraction of the atria forces the remaining 20% of blood volume (Shrestha, 2011) to fill the ventricles. Contraction of the right atrium fills the right ventricles with deoxygenated blood from the systematic circulatory system, while the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary vein and fills the left ventricle. During the P-R segment, the electrical impulse passes down to the atrioventricular node (AVN) via the internodal pathway.
Continuing down the list, people will find patients that are at less of a risk for waiting. As a patient is waiting for an organ, their conditions may start to worsen. If this occurs, they move up the list. This causes controversy because some people have been on the waiting list for ten years or more, and they just moved down on the list because someone’s condition worsened. “Organs fail more quickly in patients who wait three years for a transplant versus patients who receive one immediately” (Monti 1).
Blood pressure is defined as the pressure of blood against the walls of the arteries and is measured in terms of systolic and diastolic pressure (Farlex, 2009). A stethoscope is used to hear the vibrations the blood makes against the walls of the arteries, referred to as “Kortokoff Sounds”. These sounds will indicate systolic pressure as well as diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure is the maximum arterial blood pressure during the cardiac cycle and it is the first sound heard through the stethoscope during blood pressure measurement (Widmaier, Raff, & Strang, 2008). Diastolic pressure is the minimum blood pressure during the cardiac cycle and it is the point at which sounds disappear during blood pressure measurement (Widmaier, Raff, & Strang, 2008).
For example, a young person may have blood pressure of 110/75 but at the age of 60 years it could be 145/90. High blood pressure is called hypertension. High blood pressure is caused by the constriction (narrowing) of very small arteries (called arterioles) which results in increased resistance to blood flow. Very high blood pressure can lead to rupture of an artery and internal bleeding. How to Measure Blood Pressure: Blood pressure is measured by using an instrument called sphygmomanometer.
This malfunctioning may have many causes: an increased pumping of the blood by the heart; an excess of volume of the blood improperly excreted by the kidney; an excess of hormones able to increase blood pressure; and constriction of the blood vessels. A high blood pressure that is consistently over the recommended range of 140 Systolic (3), over 80 Diastolic, (140/80) is considered high. The Diastolic number is of the most concern when considering high blood pressure (4). One blood pressure reading that is high does not mean you have high blood pressure. There are many reasons for pressures
The elevated temperatures may initiate secondary, more hazardous runaways or decompositions. http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg254.htm Thermal runaway reactions are characterised by progressive increases in the rate of heat generation, temperature and pressure [Nolan, 1987]. Heat generation increases exponentially with the increase in temperature and may occur due many factors, including lack of process control, lack of cooling etc. The increase in pressure may occur due to vaporisation of some of the components in the reaction mass and/or decomposition of some of the gaseous products at the elevated temperatures. Thermal runaway reactions occur when the heat generated by a reaction exceeds the heat removal caused by the available cooling capacity.
For example, rate of gas exchange in organism will increase; more oxygen will diffuse into the cells and more carbon dioxide will diffuse back out into blood to be removed. In addition, enzymes are also affected in a similar way when there is a rise in temperature. Enzymes are globular proteins that act as catalysts, which alter the rate of a chemical reaction. As said above, a rise in temperature will increase the kinetic energy of molecules. In an enzyme-catalysed reaction, this means that the enzyme and substrate molecules will successfully collide more often, so there will be more enzyme-substrate complexes formed per second, and as a result rate of reaction increases.
Adrenaline increases the flow of oxygen and blood to the brain by increasing the activity of the heart and dilating blood vessels. This may makes us feel either energized or shaky, weak or sick. It has been suggested that adrenaline might be responsible for the creation of emotion, and various studies have attempted to investigate the effect of this hormone on behavior. One study about adrenaline was conducted by Schachter and Singer, in 1962. Stating that emotion is a function of both cognitive factors and physiological arousal.