Q waves and ST elevation. Mrs. Sutton’s clinical presentation: The initial 12-lead ECG revealed early Q-Waves and massive ST-segment elevation in leads V1-V4, myoglobin-120, 2. How is a diagnosis of AMI determined? Identify the results for Mrs. Sutton that confirmed the diagnosis of AMI. a patient history of severe, prolonged chest pain, unequivocal electrocardiogram (ECG) changes that include abnormal and persistent Q waves,changes in serial cardiac biomarker levels that indicate myocardial injury and infarction.
Beta-blockers Beta-blockers reduce nerve impulses to the heart and blood vessels. This makes the heart beat slower and with less force. Blood pressure drops and the heart works less hard. ACE inhibitors Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors prevent the formation of a hormone called angiotensin II, which normally causes blood vessels to narrow. The ACE inhibitors cause the vessels to relax and blood pressure goes down.
As sodium ions attract water, water is also retained which increase blood volume and therefore blood pressure (Marieb & Hoehn, 2012). Fosinopril acts to inhibit the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II by completely blocking the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), thus preventing vasoconstriction and water retention and decreasing blood pressure (Allen, 2013). 3. The expected therapeutic response for hydrochlorothiazide is diuresis. Explain how this occurs and how it benefits the patient.
Because myoglobin releases oxygen to the mitochondria when needed for ATP production there would be less ATP. If there is less ATP then the contraction of muscles would also be less and slower. Muscle fatigue may also become present. 3) What might occur if lactic acid did not “burn” when it accumulated in a muscle cell? Would there be an overall negative side effect?
The fluid would have some of the alveoli under water where they could not function properly and there would also be more friction from the buildup. E. Cari’s lung compliance would increase from trying to force gases into and out of the alveoli. Those are filled with fluid due to the pneumonia. F. The fluid in Cari’s lungs would lower her total lung capacity by not allowing the space that is taken up by the fluid to be filled with air. G. The elevation in her respiratory rate would alter her minute ventilation by raising it.
| This medication will lower your blood pressure. | This lowers blood pressure and heart rate. | This will decrease extra fluid from your body leading to lower blood pressure and less edema | This is a heart medication, it will slow the heart rate. | What should I do before I take this medication? | Rotate the site of this patch daily.
This allows more chloride ions to enter the neuron, making it even more resistant to excitation. This results in a reduction of the brains excitatory and makes the person calmer. Beta blockers work by reducing the activity of adrenaline and noradrenaline which are part of the beta receptors on the cell of the heart and other parts of the body which are usually stimulated during arousal. By blocking the receptor sites, they can cause a reverse effect of stress hormones, causing the heart to beat more slowly and with less force. The action of beta blockers results in a fall in blood pressure and therefore less stress on the heart.
Table 2. Examples of approaches used in the management of cancer-related fatigue Exercise Nutrition and hydration Measures to promote quality sleep and rest Pharmacological agents (stimulants, glucocorticoids) Blood transfusions, erythropoietin (to treat anaemia) Energy conservation measures Attention restoring activities Antidepressants (specifically, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Stress management Anticipatory guidance and preparatory information Acupuncture/acupressure Relaxation Diary writing Massage Aromatherapy Yoga Recommended interventions Exercise Currently, based on the substantial body of scientific evidence, moderate physical exercise (50%-90% of the estimated maximum heart rate) is deemed to be effective in reducing fatigue in breast cancer patients during and after cancer treatment (Kirshbaum, 2007). Specialist breast care nurses have demonstrated their impact on promoting exercise as a beneficial intervention to address the varied concerns of women in their care (Kirshbaum, 2008). In addition, there is growing evidence which provides a strong 216 British Journal of Community Nursing Vol 15, No
When the body detects stress, the SNS is activated which leads to raised heart rate, which leads to higher blood pressure which can lead to Chronic Heart Disease, heart attack, stroke etc. The Beta Blocker is taken then and it acts by reducing activity of adrenaline and noradrenaline and also binds to the receptors of the heart and other areas of the body stimulated by arousal. As a result of blocking these receptors, it is therefore harder to stimulate them and so the heart beat is slowed, and therefore lower blood pressure. A strength of drug treatment is that they are proven to be affective, for example Kahn et al tested 250 participants over 8 weeks, and found that BZs were better than a placebo. The drugs are also very quick and easy to use, and do not require extra effort or stress that could be incurred using other, longer methods of stress management.