The ends of the bone are covered with smooth articular cartilage; this acts as a sponge and also reduces friction when the joint is moving. A hinge joint produces a similar action to a hinge on a door in that, it makes an open a close movement. The joint allows flexion and extension and a small degree of side to side movement when the knee is flexed. It is enclosed in an articular capsule to unite the articulating bones and ligaments to strengthen it by limited movement. The articular capsule has two layers: -Fibrous capsule: the outer layer - Synovial membrane: the inner layer that secretes synovial fluid which lubricates to reduce friction.
This type of joint is one of six synovial joints called the ball and socket joint. A synovial joint is a freely moveable joint with distinctive features. They all have a smooth cartilage covering the ends of the bones and a double layered capsule which encloses the joint cavity. The outer layer is tough and is used for protection against excessive movement in lots of directions, while the inner layer is used to release synovial fluid to help lubricate the joint during motion. This part of the capsule is known as the synovial membrane.
Long bones – The major bones of the arms (humerus, radius, and ulna) and the legs (the femur, tibia, and fibula) are all long bones. Short bones – The short bones include all of the metacarpals and phalanges in the hands, the metatarsals and phalanges in the feet, and the clavicle (collarbone). Flat bones – The flat bones include the scapula (shoulder bone), the ribs, and the sternum (breastbone). Seasamoid bones – patella (knee cap) Irregular - vertebrae (spine) and the mandible (jaw) Human skeleton - anterior view Human skeleton - posterior view An example of a sesamoid bone (patella) The vertebral column (spine) Functions of the skeletal system are: 1. Protection - the cranium and ribs protect the brain and vital organs in the chest.
The muscle tissue has four main properties; Excitability, Contractibility, Extensibility and Elasticity. Excitability; The ability to respond to stimuli. Contractibility; The ability to contract. Extensibility; The ability to stretch without causing a tear. Elasticity; The ability to be able to return to normal shape.
What is a Ligament and how does it work? Ligament is a tough band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone or bone to cartilage and supports and strengthens joints. The main functions of ligaments are to keep the bones of the skeleton in a suitable alignment and prevent abnormal movements of the joints. What is a Tendon and how does it work? A tendon is tissue that connects muscles to bones.
A – Functional Anatomy and Biomechanics of Different Joints: Talorcrural Joint consists of the ligaments and muscles along with the distal tibia, medial malleolus and lateral malleolus which helps to structure a hinge joint and thus articulate on the talus.¹ Talus is the major weightbearer connecting the lower extremities to foot and allows for plantarflexion and dorsiflexion. ² However, the Subtalar Joint (STJ) comprises of the articulation between the talus and calcaneus and thus allow for pronation and supination of one’s feet. When pressure is established on STJ, it allows one to rotate their legs (extension and flexion on knees). These movements create profound reactions on one’s lower extremities leading to compensation. ³ Midtarsal
4. Two joints in the knee a. tibiofemoral joint, which joins the tibia to the femur b. the patellofemoral joint which joins the kneecap to the femur c. two joints work together to form a modified hinge joint that not allows the knee to bend and straighten, but also to rotate slightly and from side to side. B. Structure of the Knee 1. bones, ligaments, tendons, cartilages and a joint capsule, all of which are made of collagen. C. Bones of the Knee 1. give strength, stability and flexibility in the knee 2.
Describe the structure and development of bone and the factors that influence it. Bone is living tissue that makes up the body's skeleton. The bone consists of blood vessels, nerve cells and living bone cells. Bones are made up of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and other minerals, as well as the protein collagen. Calcium is needed to make bones hard, which allows them to support your weight.
 The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage system forcalcium and phosphorus and contains critical components of the hematopoietic system.  This system describes how bones are connected to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments. The bones provide the stability to a body in analogy to iron rods in concrete construction. Muscles keep bones in place and also play a role in movement of the bones. To allow motion, different bones are connected by joints.
Skeletal System * Function of the Skeletal System * Support - framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs * Protection - for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain * Movement - bones act as levers for muscles * Mineral storage - calcium & phosphate * Blood cell formation – hematopoiesis * Types of Bones * Long Bones - metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges, humerus, ulna, radius, tibia, fibula * Short Bones - carpals, tarsals * Flat Bones - rib, scapula, skull, sternum * Irregular Bones - vertebrae, some facial bones * Sesamoid – patella * Skeletal Organization 1. Axial Skeleton * skull, ribs, vertebral column 2. Appendicular skeleton - arms, legs, and bones that anchor the limbs to the axial skeleton. * Axial Skeleton 1. Cranium Facial Bones Anterior View Anterior View 2.