Cell Analogy Assignment Glossary Cell Membrane: The cell membrane is a thin membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm and holds the content of a cell. Its job is to protect the substances within a cell by allowing some substances in and keeping others out. It maintains the shape and helps support the cell. The Cell membrane has Phospholipids components that have polar heads and hydrophobic tail that face opposite of each other it allows some types of molecules to diffuse on the cell membrane. Cytoplasm: The cytoplasm consists of all the components outside of the nucleus and within the cell membrane of the cell.
Signal transduction happens when a membrane protein may have a binding site with a specific shape that fits the shape of a chemical messenger, such as hormones & other extracellular substances that trigger changes in cellular activity. Another function is cell to cell recognition which occurs when some proteins serve as identification tags that are specifically recognized by other cells. The Cell Wall is a rigid structure mainly made out of the protein cellulose, a tough chemical that helps plants to maintain their shape
9. The _________ is not only responsible for the cell's shape and movement, but it also provides a scaffolding at certain locations of the cytoplasm for some enzymes and macromolecules. 10. ___________ is the generally accepted evolutionary process which created the organelles, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. 11.
The Study of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes Charles Lambert ITT Technical Institute Prokaryotes are organisms without a cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles. Most are unicellular, but some prokaryotes are multi-cellular. Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The most characteristic membrane bound structure is the nucleus. Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes.
Cells are the building blocks of life. Tissue: Made from similar cells. Each organ has specific types of cells that make that particular organ and its parts. Organ: Similar types of tissue (example brain tissue, muscle tissue, bone tissue, heart tissue) makeup an organ. Organ System: Organs that work together to help an organism execute a specific function (breathing, thinking, eating, reading, writing, playing, learning, sleeping, moving, etc.)
P2- Outline the structure of the main tissues of the body In this written assay out the structure of the main tissues of the body. The tissues I’m going to speak about is cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm; organelles – mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough), Golgi apparatus, lysosome. Tissues Tissues are sets of the same cells carrying out particular functions these include; epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous. Epithelial tissues are the inside layer of internal and external surfaces and body cavities, including ducts carrying secretions from glands. They may be composed of some layers of cells, called compound epithelia or just a single layer which is known as simple epithelia.
Cell Membrane The cell membrane is a thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell. The membranes function is to protect the integrity of the interior of the cell by allowing certain substances into the cell, while keeping other substances out. It is a fluid phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins and glycoproteins. The phospholipid bilayer is arranged so that the polar ends of the molecules (the portion of the phospholipid that is soluble in water) form the outermost and innermost surface of the membrane while the non-polar ends (the fatty acid portions of the phospholipids that are insoluble in water) form the centre of the membrane Nuclear Membrane It is a double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a cell that controls what enters and leaves the nucleus. It can also be called nuclear envelope.
Differences between the structures of a bacterial and eukaryotic cell Bacteria cells are sheathed by a strong cell wall which is composed of peptidoglycan (polymer of sugar). The cell wall provides a structural strength, maintain its shape, and restricts the excessive or loss of water. Plants and Fungi also contain a strong cell wall but with a different chemical structure than peptidoglycan. Plants contain cellulose while fungi contains chitin fibers embedded in the matrix of other polysaccharides and proteins. Flagella are long, threadlike structures made of proteins used for movement.
I will also include a labelled diagram of a typical cell. Cells Cells are the basic unit of living materials; every individual is made up of billions of cells. Cells vary in size and shape and carry out different functions, but there are three things that can usually be found in any type of cell; nucleus, cytoplasm and membrane (however, a mature red blood cell for example doesn’t have a nucleus so is therefore an exception from this statement). Cells are usually very small and require microscopes for them to be seen. There is only one cell in the body that can be seen with the naked eye, the female ovum.
Prokaryotic cells are found in organisms such as bacteria, most commonly eubacteria and archae bacteria. Eukaryotic cells are therefore are found in all other living organisms, the name implying that there is a proper nucleus present. As there is no nucleus present in prokaryotic cells the DNA helix is a single coiled chromosome that is unsupported and so can float freely around the cell, however in a eukaryotic cell the DNA helix is made up of linear chromosomes supported by the histone protein. In Eukaryotic cells there is also a distinct nuclear membrane Prokaryotic cells are smaller than Eukaryotic cells, according to â€œPharmaceutical Microbiologyâ€ the majority of bacteria fall within the general dimensions of 0.75 to 4mm compared to the size of common eukaryotic cells which can be up to 40 times larger than Prokaryotic cells and measure between 50 and 150mm. Prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic cells both can contain a cell wall however in prokaryotic cells the cell wall is peptidoglycan (a mixture of sugar and protein) if the organism is a eubacteria, or pseudomurein if the organism is a archae bacteria whereas in eukarotic cells a cell wall is only present if the organism is a plant or a fungi and the cell wall is constructed of cellulose in plants or chitin if the organism is a fungi.