1.1 Organisation of the body Inside every human being lives billions of microscopic units. These are called cells. These cells carry out a numerous amount of chemical reactions and processes that make up the essence of life itself. Cells are hardly ever on their own, the majority of the time they are grouped together with cells that are similar. These groups of cells are known as tissues.
| | Cells | Cells are the smallest functional unit organism. Cells have many different functions inside of living things. | | Eukaryotic | An Eukaryotic cell is a cell that has a nucleus and all of the organelles in the inside are protected by a cell membrane. | | Prokaryotic | Prokaryotic cells don't have a nucleus. | | Cell Membrane | The Cell Membrane holds everything inside the cell together and protects it from things that could harm it.
The protein molecule is able to float in the membrane – part of it is embedded in the membrane, part of it sticks into the cytoplasm, and part of it sticks out into the aqueous environment of the cell. What do you suspect about its structure, including its amino acid sequence, to make it behave as it does? * Examine the diagram of the cell membrane below. Is the diagram a “good” illustration of the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane? What aspects of cell membrane structure are accurately illustrated by it?
P1- Describe the microstructure of a typical animal cell and the functions of the main cell components. The microstructure of a typical animal cell consists of a plasma membrane which is made up of two phospholid molecules, proteins and cholesterol. They form a lipid bilayer which is semi-permeable allowing only certain molecules to diffuse across the membrance. Cholesterol helps ‘to stiffen plasma membranes and is not found in the membranes of plant cells.’ Bailey, About.com. The nucleus regulates all cell activity and is bounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope, this membrane separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
Nucleus | The nucleus is the "Control Center" of the cell, which contains DNA (genetic information) in the form of genes, and also information for the formation of proteins.Information is carried on chromosomes, which are a form of DNA. | cytoplasm | The nucleus is the "Control Center" of the cell, which contains DNA (genetic information) in the form of genes, and also information for the formation of proteins.Information is carried on chromosomes, which are a form of DNA. | Golgi aparatus | The golgi apparatus of a cell is usually connected to an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) because it stores and then transports the proteins produced in the ER. | Mitochondria | "Mitochondria" is a plural term; which is appropriate as these are not found
Introduction: A cell is the basic unit of structure and functions of all living organisms. It can be thought of as a bag in which the occurrence of chemistry of life is allowed, separated from the environment outside of it partially. The essential part of the cell is the thin membrane surrounding it called plasma membrane which is controlling the exchange between the cell and its environment. The membrane is called partially permeable due to its nature of controlling only certain materials to diffuse across the cell and its membrane. ( Jones et al, 2014 ) A cell can be divided into two types of cell, animal cell and plant cell.
And it also has many other important roles in cells like controlling the cell cycle and cell growth, signaling, cellular differentiation and cell death. The mitochondrion is different from other organelles in the cell. It does carry its own circular DNA. They are able self-replicate. It is also free of a nuclear envelope, and the DNA is not packed into chromatin.
The exterior surface of the plasma membrane can contain carbohydrates. How are the peripheral proteins attached to membrane? Peripheral (extrinsic) proteins are associated with the surface of the bilayer surface via ionic interactions (electrostatic) and H bonds. They do not extend into the hydrophobic interior and can be removed by agents that disrupt ionic interactions and H bonds, such as high salt concentrations, urea, or extremes of pH. How do proteins associate with cell membrane?
The last point is that all cells come from pre-existing cells. Cell theory is simple to remember, but very important to know. Differences between Plant and Animal cells There are many things that are different between plant and animal cells. One thing is that animal cells are round and an irregular shape, while plant cells are rectangular and regular in shape. Also, plant cells can be bigger than animal cells (plant cells: 10-100 micrometers, animal cells: 10-30 micrometers).