The Study of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes

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The Study of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes Charles Lambert ITT Technical Institute Prokaryotes are organisms without a cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles. Most are unicellular, but some prokaryotes are multi-cellular. Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The most characteristic membrane bound structure is the nucleus. Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. In this essay I will explain the similarities and differences between the two different organisms. There are a few similarities between prokaryotes and eukaryotes organisms. Such similarities are their cell walls. Most prokaryotes and some eukaryotes (plants and fungi) have a cell wall; a strong structure surrounding the cell and preventing it from bursting in a hypotonic environment. However, the cell walls of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, although similar in function, are made of different types of materials. Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have a fluid-like matrix that fills the cell called cytoplasm. Both organisms have a supportive cytoskeleton within the cell, although this feature was only recently discovered to occur within prokaryotes. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells can have thin extensions of the plasma membrane supported by elements of the cytoskeleton, including flagella and cilia in eukaryotes and flagella, end flagella, fimbriae and pili in prokaryotes. These extensions can function in motility (cell movement), to move materials around the outside of the cell, or to help the cell adhere to surfaces. The mechanics of how these extensions move differs between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. There are some prokaryotes and eukaryotes that possess a glycocalyx. These sticky sugar-based structures anchor cells to each other, help cells stick to surfaces, and provide some protection. The

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