Compte argues that sociology should be based on the methodology of the natural sciences and that it would result in 'invariable laws' within society. The patterns that are observed whether they are in nature or in society can all be explained the same way through finding facts that cause them. According to Compte sociology is therefore a science as like science it consists of gathering information about the social world, analysing data and making conclusions on the social laws which govern society. Durkheim although a positivist criticised Compte, he argued that in sociology could only be considered a natural science if it was studied objectively and so social facts were studied as objects. Though this is often difficult as social facts tend to be unnoticeable therefore sociologists must avoid being bias when developing their theories and concepts.
Positivists and functionalists such as Durkheim and Comte view sociology as a science and they argue that sociology can discover all the social problems. This theory believes that the state serves the interest of everyone and policies must be introduced that fit everyone. For that reason they like piecemeal engineering, which is the idea of tackling one social problem at a time. However Marxists criticise this vies as they argue that educational policies are aimed at equalising opportunity but not reducing poverty; therefore this weakens the view given by the functionalists that the state serves the interests of everyone. However functionalist still believe that sociology and social policy now have a strong relationship.
Sociology examines how our behavior individually and in groups is influenced by social processes and what that means. In fact once you start seeing things with a sociological perspective – things will never be the same. It’s knowing how and why we do what we do that engages us with the world around us and makes us more effective agents for social change. However, sociologist C. Wright Mills describes sociology as “the intersection of biography and history?” A lot of you may wonder what he mean: well from my studying and perspectives; The reason why he say sociology is the interception of biography and history is because, Biography: happens to individuals and History: happens to society. For example, every
They state that the two are always in mortal combat. Capitalists want the maximum profit for the lowest pay and the workers want the highest pay for the least work. On the other hand, although Feminists also believe that society is ruled by a dominant class, they take a much more gender specific outlook and state that society is patriarchal and that men are the dominant gender, creating inequality between men and women. Marxists and Feminists both believe there is exploitation in society. Marxists believe in two defining categories that shape society, the infrastructure and the superstructure.
Vushaj SOC 150-05 September 6, 2013 Writing assignment #1 Sociology is the study of society and social interaction. Sociology takes a broad approach at helping one understand how people interact in different societies. On the contrary, other social sciences look deeper into specific areas of society, rather than society as a whole. Classical sociologists Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber, each contributed to the scientific study of sociology. Marx believed that societies grew and changed due to struggles of different social classes.
It was a term coined by one of the founding fathers of classical sociology Comte and it involves: “Knowledge that is disciplined, empirical and scientific free from religious or political bias.” On the other hand as society and the early science of sociology evolved a different approach was seen by many to be the way forward. This anti-positivist thinking or interpretist approach believes that society cannot be studied as a science; this methodological anti-positivism proposed the theory of the human in society as an individual and thus research be directed to human cultural norms, values and symbols. The interpretist will take a more subjective approach were as the positivist tries to look at society objectively. Let us now look to compare and contrast positivism with an interpretist approach. Positivists are of the opinion that society can be studied using a scientific approach comparable to the way scientists study the natural world.
Durkheim sees anomie as responsible for the world’s disorder of economics- the lack of morality and regulation resulted in overpowering the weak; thus, he feels that only norms can prevent the abuse of power and calls for regulation and equal opportunity from birth- the greater the equal opportunity the less need for restraint. Marx looked at how capitalism separated humanity by making work a simple means of individual existence. In addition he describes society in terms of class and economic conflicts. Marx saw proletariat or people of a working class as being underneath the bourgeoisie or the capitalist of a modern society. Marx looked at how alienation of production of commodities by workers also leads to alienation of social life.
New intellectuals believed that human beings could solve their social problems. Their were 4 key theorists that laid the foundation for contemporary sociological thought. Auguste Comte, the founder of sociology. He wanted to establish sociology as a science, free of religious arguments. He was convinced that using scientific principles, sociologists could solve problems such as poverty, crime and war.
The biological materialist Richard Dawkins has two views of the ‘soul'. Some of the problems which are raised by his definition surround his scientific prejudices and his hard materialism which is best described as a form of reductionism. His views will be demonstrated to be unfounded and difficult to defend. Dawkins, as an evolutionary biologist, is looking for a physical explanation for the universe and life in general. He uses the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) definitions as his starting point for his view of the ‘soul'.
Which are natural sciences, but it is a social science like Sociology, Psychology and Economics. "There is a Political Science in the same sense that there is a science of morals." As a social science it deals with human behavior. The study of the life of human beings living in a society. Political Science is a body of systematized knowledge which can be applied in drafting a constitution, in day to day administration, in legislation, in foreign policy and above all in bringing about all round development of the