Compare and Contrast the Person Centred Model with one other Humanistic Approach, examining differences and similarities between the two approaches. Introduction Through this assignment I hope to demonstrate my understanding of the key concepts of the Person Centred Approach to counselling, its influences, strengths and weakness and how this theory compares and contrasts to the Humanistic approach of Gestalt Therapy. The Person Centred Model was an approach first devised by Carl Rogers during the 1950’s. He was the main driving force behind the changes proposing that the therapeutic relationship should be a warmer experience. Stating that the client was the expert and recognising that their condition improved when the counselling relationship was conducted on an even keel.
Critical Issue Analysis Critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) is a system of psychological debriefing, which has achieved extensive acknowledgment and utilization over a small time since it was introduced (Mitchell, 1983). This type of critical issue analysis investigates the article of each side in the use of CISD. One side states that it is more harmful than good to an individual or the other side (Mitchell), which states that the two authors Cotton and Devilly interpreted and embellished vital information about the psychological debriefing and disconcerted many features of the system acknowledging human survivors (Halgin, 2009). Two Facts of Critical Issue What are at least two facts presented by each side of critical issue? According to Cotton and Devilly, 2004, psychology debriefing is not always necessary when traumatic stress issues manifests.
Freud believed that past experience (from childhood) shapes adult personality and behaviour is influenced by unconscious mental processes. The therapist facilitates exploration of the past and via a number of skilled interventions and interpretations helps makes unconscious material conscious. The Humanistic school of thought whose major contributor was Carl Rogers (1902-1987), through the development of his ‘Client-Centered Therapy’, adopted a more positive view of human nature insisting that behaviour is a personal choice (free will) and driven by the “...actualizing tendency, that force which moves us in the direction of well-being and the fulfilment of our potential” (Tolan, 2010, p. 110). He believed that humans possess an innate capacity for growth, can take responsibility for their actions and demonstrated the importance of six therapeutic conditions which help to foster the client’s natural ability towards improvement. This approach places
The Effects of Retention Delay and Rotation on Spatial Memory. Abstract: The purpose of the experiment was to attain empirical evidence on how egocentric and allocentric representations are encoded in the short-term spatial memory, and how the manipulation of certain factors can affect this process. The aim was to discover whether rotating stimuli and increasing the time delay between observations and testing phases would have an effect on participants’ accuracy when remembering the position of a target. The study used a within subjects design, with all participants taking part in all conditions. A significant effect was found for rotation and also for the increased time delay, meaning that short-term spatial memory performance is greater when the orientation of the stimuli is not altered and when the retention delay is only a few seconds.
Record: 1 Title: Rogerian theory: a critique of the effectiveness of pure client-centred therapy. Authors: Kensit DA Source: Counselling Psychology Quarterly (COUNS PSYCHOL Q), 2000 Dec; 13 (4): 345-51. (21 ref) Publication Type: journal article Language: English Abstract: Rogers' Client-Centered Therapy (RCCT) included the phenomena 'phenomenology' (i.e., multiple reality theory) and the 'innate desire to self-actualize', maintained by the organismic valuing process. RCCT also assumed that the therapist, to produce positive outcome, was required to feel and demonstrate unconditional positive regard and genuineness toward the client. The present review evalued the fundamental accuracy of these phenomena and their effectiveness in a counselling setting.
This theory builds on individual’s abilities not on the weaknesses, and it focuses on what is well rather that on what is wrong; in other words, it fosters hope. It is built on the optimism of the social worker and the service user. In addition, this theory “focuses on the clients’ account of themselves, especially on their strengths, goals, aspirations, hope, and dreams” (Oko, 2006) This theory emerged in United States (US) in the social work field of mental health. It emerged as a reaction against the psychological and psychiatric approaches which it saw as weighted on individuals deficiencies, negativities, weaknesses, and in which the professionals were the experts on the individual’s problems. The strength approach emerge by challenging the language and the ideology in mental health practice which focused on the clients’ inabilities and deficits and not on what the clients could do, referring to clients by their diagnose, for example “the schizophrenic” or the maniac-depressive” (Healy, 2005).
The anorexic subculture is also filled with people who are pro-recovery. The Pro-recovery movement is based on the idea that anorexia is an abnormal disease that can be fixed with the proper treatments and positive reinforcements. In a research study done by Stephen M. Haas et al., the differences between pro-anorexia and pro-recovery are analyzed, and in the research Haas discovers that the pro-ana community has created a new trend for
The development of one’s personality is the focus of his theory. The goal of his person-centered theory was to achieve change in one’s personality on not only the surface but on a deeper level (Farber, 2007). The three core conditions Rogers felt were necessary to achieve change were empathy, unconditional positive regard, and genuineness. According to Rogers’s, his hypothesis for person-centered theory was “when a therapist demonstrates the ‘core conditions’ of unconditional positive regard, empathic understanding, and congruence and when the client perceives these at least to a minimal degree, then psychotherapeutic personality change and its positive correlates are inevitable (Kirschenbaum & Jourdan, 2005, p. 41).” This theory was chosen in analyzing the personality development of Antwone Fisher because it is this learner’s opinion that when working with traumatized individuals, especially those abused in childhood, empathy is the key to helping them. Person-centered theory and Rogers’s core conditions spoke to this learner whose long-term goal is to work with children who have been traumatized and suffer from disrupted attachment patterns.
As has Ainsworth’s ‘strange situation’ study (1979) that followed shortly after and provided empirical evidence for attachment theory and identified ‘styles of attachment behaviour’. I will then discuss whether attachment theory is deterministic. Finally I will look at if attachments are not formed this predestines mental health issues in adulthood by looking at some of the considerable evidence on attachment theory over recent decades. The epistemological roots of John Bowlby’s work came from various fields, including ‘psychoanalytic theories, post-Darwinian ethology, modern cognitive-developmental psychology, cybernetics (control systems theories), and community psychiatry (Chap 1, Cassidy, Cassidy and Shaver, 2008, Attachment in Adulthood:4). Through his work on attachment (1940-1990), he endeavoured to understand the formation and functioning of the personal relationships we create throughout the life course, with particular emphasis on those formed in childhood (Howe,1995:46).
The period from 1950 to 1970 marked a second historical phase. Psychology departments grew and became more specialized in areas of clinical, counseling, and industrialized/organizational psychology. Personality Psychologists focused on research toward personality traits, needs, and motives that could be reliably measured and whose impact on behavior could be observed. This historical period focused instead on problems and controversies concerning personality measurement. Mischel (1968, as cited in McAdams, 2009) argued against explanations of human behavior based on internal personality traits such as extraversion, anxiety, needs, and motives.