They found that there was a high inter-rater reliability which showed that the diagnosis of phobia is reliable. However they only looked at social phobias and didn’t consider any specific phobias therefore it cannot be generalised meaning that it is low in external validity. Also they only used interviews which means there are issues with self-report data. Social desirability bias could also occur as the participants may act in a certain way to make themselves look better even though it’s not necessarily their true behaviour. The other way of examining reliability is through test re-test, which is
This assumption can help to explain how traumatic childhood events can lead to further psychological issues as adults. In some cases people may be consciously unaware of early experiences that caused discomfort due to the development of defence mechanisms. Defence mechanisms are a way in which the mind can cope with distressful experiences; it does this by repressing the memories so that even
It would stress that he needed to examine what he is feeling and how to use those feelings in a positive way. Psychologists view this type of therapy combined with behavioral therapy as beneficial as you can isolate what is causing the anxiety by examining patient's cognitions and providing ways to alter that behavior into a positive one. The behavioral approach would focus on how negative thoughts were contributing to Jake's anxiety. The behavioral perspective contends that our thoughts affect the way we feel, that our thoughts could more or less contribute to the anxiety such as Jake is feeling. It would examine what would be the best way to modify his behavior.
Hobson believes that because problems in our life are usually through interpersonal relationships, we should resolve these problems through a therapeutic relationship. The quality of the relationship is crucial for the effectiveness of the therapy. PIT consists of several interlinking components, of which include ‘explanatory rationale’ and ‘staying with feelings’. A potential strength of PIT is that it is just as effective if not more so than current treatments at improving depressive symptoms. Research support comes from Elkin, who found that when compared to CBT, PIT is just as effective at treating depression.
Unit 4222-212 Provide support to manage pain and discomfort (hsc 2003) Outcome 1 Understand approaches to managing pain and discomfort. 1. Explain the importance of holistic approuch to managing pain and discomfort. Using a holistic approach is important because it gets to the root of the problem and the reason your having pain to begin with or Pain may be coming from another part of the body and when you try to find out where the pain originates from this can help you to decide the best way to treat it. When you know the cause and you can resolve the problem more accurately and Pain maybe emotional pain if they are concerned about something or it may also be due to anxiety or you worry about what may happen to them.
This moral balance sheet can also be thought as a demerit system. When a person acts out of a norm and is blamed, then something negative is revealed in their character. When something negative is revealed in a person’s character, their moral record is considered negative, suggesting they have lowered their moral worth. This works in the other way as well. When a moral act is performed, something positive is revealed in one’s character.
He said we all need conditional positive regard from our parents, and if we did not receive this is can lead to psychological problems in our future. Humanistic psychologists try to understand behaviour from the actor themselves rather than relying on observations. Behaviourists take the phenomenological perspective, this means that they take an objective unbiased view about something, and they go about studies scientifically. The humanistic approach looks at subjective experiences people have and analyse them from their point of view. All humanistic studies are conducted unscientifically.
The main problem that will be focused on at first is Bradley’s sexual inappropriate behavior. This is due to it being the most concerning problem, and it will provide a good therapeutic base to work off of. It is important to first address the disturbed feelings Bradley has and how those feelings are evident through his behaviors and thoughts. To address his sexual inappropriateness, Bradley will need to be taught about victim empathy. To be able to work on understanding his sexual inappropriateness, Bradley will first need to recognize how it affects others and be able to view his behaviors from the victim’s point of view.
Kohlberg was concerned more with reasoning for each participant’s decision rather than their answer (Cherrie, 2012). Kohlberg’s research resulted in the following levels and stages of moral development; Level 1. Preconventional Morality • Stage 1 - Obedience and Punishment The earliest stage of moral development is especially common in young children, but adults are also capable of expressing this type of reasoning. At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment.
In order to understand these contributions to anxiety disorders one must be aware of how we define the factors that may contribute to anxiety such as Faulty Cognitions, in which the individual reveals habits that make them susceptible to fear. Individuals who suffer from a social phobia appear to intensify signs of danger and obsessively worry about different situations, so one must be able to relearn their thinking patterns (Huffman, Karen. pg. 502). Another contribution to anxiety disorders includes Maladaptive Learning, in which learning theorists say that they are the result from maladaptive conditioning and social learning.