O'Connor also reports in a study done on 473 people that were prenatally exposed to alcohol 44% were diagnosed with major depressive disorder, 40% had psychotic disorders, and 20% had bipolar disorders(Women's Health1). Studies on prenatal alcohol exposure and relation to IQ show varying severities. It was noted that some children for unknown reasons are more susceptible than others to the effects of alcohol. An article in Journal of School Health by Jennifer H. Green reports on a review of studies done showing an average IQ for people with fetal alcohol syndrome at 65.73 with a range of 20-120 (Green 1). Fetal alcohol syndrome is a preventable problem.
· brain defects or injury: Defects in or injury to certain areas of the brain have also been linked to some mental illnesses. · prenatal damage: Some evidence suggests that a disruption of early fetal brain development or trauma that occurs at the time of birth -- for example, loss of oxygen to the brain -- may be a factor in the development of certain conditions, such as autism. · substance abuse: Long-term substance abuse, in particular, has been linked to anxiety, depression, and paranoia. · other factors: Poor nutrition[->1] and exposure to toxins, such as lead, may play a role in the development of mental illnesses. PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS: · severe trauma suffered as a child, such as emotional, physical or sexual abuse.
Ritalin Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant. It affects chemicals in the brain and nerves that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control. The drug is commonly known as Ritalin. It is prescribed to children and adults that are prescribed with ADHD and ADD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder/Attention Deficit Disorder). It has also been prescribed for multiple disorders dealing with the brain and mental functions.
Extreme use of alcohol and other drugs can damage the brain and can sometimes cause hallucinations or other symptoms of a mental disorder but is only usually caused by excessive use of alcohol and drugs. Another cause for a mental disorder is infection. Infection can lead to the rise of mental illnesses and schizophrenia has been linked to flu. Another physical cause of a mental disorder is the biochemistry including neurotransmitters and hormones. Neurotransmitters are known to have an impact on behaviour such as high levels of nor adrenaline and dopamine are seen when a depressed mood is evident e.g.
For example, schizophrenia has been liked to being the result of microorganisms causing infection. Torrey (2001) discovered that during pregnancy, many mothers of schizophrenic people had contracted a particular strain of flu, which could have entered the unborn child’s brain and remain dormant until puberty where other hormones may activate it, resulting in symptoms of schizophrenia. Barr et al (1990) supports this theory by discovering that there was an increased incidence of schizophrenia in the children of mothers who had this flu during pregnancy. However, this purely biological explanation is limited, as it does not consider environmental factors such as past experiences. Genetic factors such as faulty genes are known to causes some diseases that have psychological effects.
Poor memory 4. Poor fine motor skills • Students with ADHD are two to three times more likely to have problems with expressive language than their non-ADD peers. • 75% of boys with ADD are hyperactive; 60% of girls with ADD are hyperactive. • 40% of children who have ADHD have at least one parent who has ADHD • 50% of children who have ADHD also have sleep problems. • Parents of a child who has ADHD are three times as likely to separate or divorce as parents of non-ADD children • Teenagers with ADHD have almost four times as many traffic citations as their non-ADD peers.
In addition to that playing video games, too much sugar, fast past lifestyle and lack of self control are also invalid causes of AD/HD. However, heredity, brain deficiencies and other biological causes are reasons why some children have AD/HD. Prenatal factors such as alcohol consumption or smoking while pregnant can also cause AD/HD. Brain deficiencies can be defined as damages to the frontal lobes which controls cognitive, emotional and motor responses, the cerebellum which controls motor planning, motivation and behavioral inhibition and/or basal ganglia which also controls behavioral inhibition. Once it is seen how AD/HD occurs in children it is very clear to see why they have as much trouble as they do with focusing in
Also the percentage of children with an ADHD diagnosis that are being placed on medication jumped from 55% in 1989 to 75% in 1996 (Gibbs 1998). Now that I have illustrated some of the statistics behind our country’s ADD/ADHD children, perhaps I should talk a little more about what exactly an ADD/ADHD child is. ADHD does not have physical signs that can be recognized in the patient. Most diagnoses are made through observation and over a period of time. The most common behaviors fall into the three following categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and
Concerta is a central nervous system stimulant. It affects chemicals in the brain and nerves that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control. All drugs have their dangers and side effects however only some of the children taking Concerta complained about the mild side effects such
Task B A.) Personal factors Health, a child who has ill health may spend time in hospital and miss schooling, this would affect the child in education on all levels including emotional & social aspects of making friends etc. also conditions like asthma which can be triggered by certain conditions could affect a child’s physical development. Influences before and at birth, a babies development can be affected whilst still in the womb of the mother i.e. if the mother smokes, drinks or abuses drugs the baby could be harmed at this time or even if the maternal anxiety & stress could influence development.