If these neurotransmitters are out of balance, the chemical messages cannot get through the brain properly. This can alter the way the brain reacts in certain situations, causing anxiety. Some parts of our brain chemistry are also involved in generalized anxiety disorder. Most notably the brains of people with generalized anxiety disorder have abnormal levels of serotonin and nor-epinephrine. The most popular treatments for generalized anxiety disorder work to correct this.
There are some side effects that will eventually show if these unnatural steroids keep being used. For example, some side effects that are bad for the user are, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, mood swings, impotency shrunken testicles and severe acne and even cancer. A well known side effect is roid rage, where a person can become completely enraged over little things that happen. A person who uses anabolic steroids can get to the point where they totally lose control over their emotions. There have been studies that have proven that the mind is affected by the use of anabolic steroids.
Probably one of the most interesting factors contributing to the biological aspect of depression is heredity. Depressive disorders have been found to have a genetic component, especially for bipolar disorder, meaning that a biological vulnerability for depression can be present from birth. Having depression in one’s immediate family does not guarantee diagnosis of depression and people with no family history can become depressed. There is also a biochemical factor caused by abnormalities in the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain (Bernstein et al., 2007). In particular, neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine are found to be at lower levels in people with MDD.
Depressants act on the central nervous system to suppress or slow bodily processes and to reduce overall responsiveness. Stimulants increase the overall activity and responsiveness of the central nervous system. Hallucinogens produce sensory or perceptual distortions, including visual, auditory, and kinesthetic hallucinations. Some ways you can recognize if someone is on drugs is by their physical, emotional, and behavioral appearance. You can tell if they have bloodshot eyes, dilated or constricted pupils.
This is where you inherit a mental illness from your parents because it has been passed down through your genes which are similar to physical illnesses like diabetes or heart disease. However unlike the infection theory studies have been done with twins, if one has a mental illness the other twin has a 50% chance of developing one as well. However this is also unreliable because you cannot extrapolate that the illness has been passed down through genes it may just run in the family. The next aspect, neurochemicals suggests that a change in chemicals in the brain has caused a mental disorder. Abnormal functioning of the brain can be caused by abnormal levels of neurotransmitters and hormones.
This suggests that certain genetic factors may lead to abnormal functioning of areas of the brain causing illnesses such as OCD. In addition, there is a high concordance rate between identical twins and they are twice as likely to develop OCD if their twin has the disorder compared to non identical twins. Therefore this also shows how there are certain genes that cause OCD and that these genes may be hereditary. Another explanation for OCD is Neuroanatomical processes involving the OFC caudate nuclei loop. The loops involves the orbital frontal cortex which picks up on situations that we need to worry about and then sends this message on to the Caudate Nucleus which describes whether or not the message is important and if it deems yes, the message is passed on to the thalamus, which acts upon the received message.
Drugs are chemicals; they work in the brain by tapping into the brain’s communication system and interfering with the way nerve cells normally send, receive, and process information. Drugs, such as amphetamine or cocaine, can cause the nerve cells to release abnormally large amounts of natural neurotransmitters or prevent the normal recycling of these brain chemicals. The disruption produces a highly amplified message disrupting communication channels. It also has a difference in effect which can be described as the difference between someone whispering into your ear and someone shouting into a microphone. Addiction is a brain disease because it has so many different type of effects that disrupt the brain
LSD can cause uterine contractions potentially causing a miscarriage (Darlington 402). Though MDMA, more commonly known as the active ingredient in ecstasy, is also considered a psychedelic its effects are extremely different from LSD. MDMA primarily involves the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin in the brain. MDMA acts by blocking serotonin reuptake, causing more serotonin to be released, and additionally releasing dopamine (Holland 29). This flood of serotonin in the brain might be responsible for the extreme “high” users
Swann article states that Persons with Bipolar Disorder have a heightened increase of manic episodes when they are also diagnosed with abusing substances. People who are Bipolar and also abuse substances have an impaired decision-making thought process. Swann (2009) states “The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) observed deficits on the IGT in subjects with substance-use disorders and with lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.” (280) According to this study, IGT performance correlates with the impulsivity of individuals. Therefore, decision making may very well be connected to substance abuse and if one is impaired mentally, then the impulsivity experienced can be negatively affected as well in regard to